A 2-D imaging-assisted geometrical transformation method for non-destructive evaluation of the volume and surface area of avian eggs

Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): Valeriy G. Narushin, Gang Lu, James Cugley, Michael N. Romanov, Darren K. GriffinAbstractEgg volume and surface area are reliable predictors of quality traits for both table and hatching chicken eggs. A new non-destructive technique for the fast and accurate evaluation of these two egg variables is addressed in the present study. The proposed method is based on the geometrical transformation of actual egg contour into a well-known geometrical figure which shape most of all resembles the examined egg. The volume and surface area of an examined egg were recomputed using the formulae appropriate for three figures including sphere, ellipsoid, and egg-shape ovoid. The method of the geometrical transformation includes the measurements of the egg length and the area of the examined eggs. These variables were determined using two-dimensional (2-D) digital imaging and image processing techniques. The geometrical transformation approach is proven to be reliable to turn the studied chicken eggs into the three chosen ovoid models, with the best prediction being shown for the ellipsoid and egg-shape ovoid, whilst the former was slightly more preferable. Depending on the avian species studied, we hypothesise that it would be more suitable to use the sphere model for more round shaped eggs and the egg-shaped ovoid model if the examined eggs are more conical. The choice of the proposed transformation technique w...
Source: Food Control - Category: Food Science Source Type: research

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(BfR Federal Institute for Risk Assessment) In the Federal State of Brandenburg, a case of highly pathogenic avian influenza (often referred to as bird flu) was found in a wild goose, caused by a virus of the H5N8 subtype. According to the current state of scientific knowledge, it is unlikely that the pathogen can be transmitted to humans via food.
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
Contributors : Qingtao Liu ; Yin Li ; Jing YangSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Gallus gallusWe analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at the transcriptome level in chicken DCs infected with H9N2 influenza virus compared to mock infection by high-throughput RNA-sequencing technology, and found that H9N2 influenza virus infection induced a strong innate immune response in chicken DCs, but impaired the antigen-processing and –presenting capacity of this cell,
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Gallus gallus Source Type: research
Research in chickens has been fundamental for the discovery of basic aspects of the immune system and has led to an interest in the in-depth characterization of avian immune cell types including dendritic cells (DCs). The in vitro generation and expansion of chicken bone marrow-derived DCs (chBMDCs) in the presence of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has provided a way to study chicken DCs, which are only present at limited cell numbers in vivo. This method has been employed to study the interactions between chicken DCs and pathogens or vaccines. However, a detailed characterization of the chBMDC c...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 February 2020Source: Pharmacology &TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Kimiyasu Shiraki, Tohru DaikokuAbstractFavipiravir has been developed as an anti-influenza drug and licensed as an anti-influenza drug in Japan. Additionally, favipiravir is being stockpiled for 2 million people as a countermeasure for novel influenza strains. This drug functions as a chain terminator at the site of incorporation of the viral RNA and reduces the viral load. Favipiravir cures all mice in a lethal influenza infection model, while oseltamivir fails to cure the animals. Thus, favipiravir contributes to curing an...
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
ConclusionsWe find that avian arboviruses act as vector specialists infecting a few key mosquito species that associate with discrete habitats, while mammalian arboviruses are largely vector generalists infecting a wide diversity of mosquito species and habitats in the region. These distinctions have important implications for the design and implementation of mosquito and arbovirus surveillance programs as well as mosquito control efforts.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 February 2020Source: Progress in NeurobiologyAuthor(s): William James Clark, Michael ColomboAbstractWe provide an extensive review of the pigeon visual system, focussing on the known cell types, receptive field characteristics, mechanisms of perception/visual attention, and projection profiles of neurons in the thalamofugal and tectofugal pathways. The similarities and differences with the primate visual system at each stage of the visual hierarchy are highlighted. We conclude with a discussion of object and face processing in birds, as well as the current state of knowledge in the sea...
Source: Progress in Neurobiology - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: A historical anchor for vaccination rates and ILI is provided in a large cohort of college students following the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Influenza immunization locations were determined, as was self-reported obstacles to receiving vaccinations. These are important results for public health leaders seeking to increase vaccination rates during future influenza seasons. PMID: 32074350 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Military Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Mil Med Source Type: research
Irises isolated from the eyes of diverse species constrict when exposed to light. Depending on species this intrinsic photomechanical transduction response (PMTR) requires either melanopsin or cryptochrome (CRY) photopigment proteins, generated by their respective association with retinoid or flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) chromophores. Although developmentally relevant circadian rhythms are also synchronized and reset by these same proteins, the cell type, mechanism, and specificity of photomechanical transduction (PMT) and its relationship to circadian processes remain poorly understood. Here we show that PMTRs consis...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Authors: Al-Mnaser AA, Woodward MJ Abstract In vitro studies aimed at studying the mechanism of action of carvacrol and oregano as natural anti-bacterial agents to control multiple antibiotic-resistant avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strain O23:H52 isolated from chicken were performed. Derivatives with increased minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) to the phytochemicals were selected after growing Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain O23:H52 at sub-lethal concentrations of carvacrol and oregano for a period of 60 days. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of two derivatives revealed a missense mutation in cadC an...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research
Current influenza vaccines only confer protection against homologous viruses. We synthesized pulmonary surfactant (PS)–biomimetic liposomes encapsulating 2',3'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate–adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP), an agonist of the interferon gene inducer STING (stimulator of interferon genes). The adjuvant (PS-GAMP) vigorously augmented influenza vaccine–induced humoral and CD8+ T cell immune responses in mice by simulating the early phase of viral infection without concomitant excess inflammation. Two days after intranasal immunization with PS-GAMP–adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine, strong cross-p...
Source: ScienceNOW - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Immunology, Microbiology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news
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