IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 615: Travel-Related Typhoid Fever: Narrative Review of the Scientific Literature

IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 615: Travel-Related Typhoid Fever: Narrative Review of the Scientific Literature International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph17020615 Authors: Narcisa Muresu Giovanni Sotgiu Bianca Maria Are Andrea Cossu Clementina Cocuzza Marianna Martinelli Sergio Babudieri Riccardo Are Marco Dettori Antonio Azara Laura Saderi Andrea Piana Enteric fever is a foodborne infectious disease caused by Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A, B and C. The high incidence in low income countries can increase the risk of disease in travelers coming from high income countries. Pre-travel health advice on hygiene and sanitation practices and vaccines can significantly reduce the risk of acquiring infections. Although the majority of the cases are self-limiting, life-threatening complications can occur. Delayed diagnosis and cases of infections caused by multi-drug resistant strains can complicate the clinical management and affect the prognosis. More international efforts are needed to reduce the burden of disease in low income countries, indirectly reducing the risk of travelers in endemic settings. Surveillance activities can help monitor the epidemiology of cases caused by drug-susceptible and resistant strains.
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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This report provides an update on U.S. cases of XDR typhoid fever linked to Pakistan and describes a new, unrelated cluster of ceftriaxone-resistant Typhi infections linked to Iraq. Travelers to areas with endemic Typhi should receive typhoid vaccination before traveling and adhere to safe food and water precautions (4). Treatment of patients with typhoid fever should be guided by antimicrobial susceptibility testing whenever possible (5), and clinicians should consider travel history when selecting empiric therapy. PMID: 32437343 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
Reviving the "Moore swab": a classic environmental surveillance tool involving filtration of flowing surface water and sewage water to recover typhoidal Salmonella. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2020 Apr 24;: Authors: Sikorski MJ, Levine MM Abstract The Moore swab is a classic environmental surveillance tool whereby a gauze pad tied with string is suspended in flowing water or wastewater contaminated with human feces and harboring enteric pathogens that pose a human health threat. In contrast to single volume "grab" samples, Moore swabs act as continuous filters to "trap" micro...
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Appl Environ Microbiol Source Type: research
We describe the epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) infection in Laos based on isolates accrued over 18 years at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane. All blood cultures collected from patients presenting with fever submitted to the Microbiology Laboratory at Mahosot Hospital (February 2000-December 2018) were included. This included patients from Vientiane and four provincial hospitals and one typhoid outbreak investigation. A total of 913 (1.5%) of 60,384 blood cultures were positive for S. Typhi. The majority of isolates with data available (712/898, 79.3%) were ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
The burden of diarrheal diseases is very high, accounting for 1.7 to 5 billion cases per year worldwide. Typhoid Fever (TF) and Cholerare potentially life-threatening infectious diseases mainly transmitted through the consumption of food, drink or water that have been contaminated by the feces or urine of subjects excreting the pathogen. TF is mainly caused by Salmonella typhi whereas Cholera is caused by intestinal infection by the toxin-producing bacterium Vibrio cholerae. These diseases typically affect low- and middle-income countries where housing is overcrowded and wa...
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
ConclusionsThis report confirms 12 azithromycin-resistantSalmonella Typhi strains and one Paratyphi A strain. The molecular basis of this resistance is one mutation in the AcrB protein at position 717. This is the first report demonstrating the impact of this non-synonymous mutation in conferring macrolide resistance in a clinical setting. With increasing azithromycin use, strains with R717 mutations may spread and be acquired by XDR strains. An azithromycin-resistant XDR strain would shift enteric fever treatment from outpatient departments, where patients are currently treated with oral azithromycin, to inpatient departm...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Enteric fever is a major public health concern in endemic areas, particularly in infrastructure-limited countries where Salmonella Paratyphi A has emerged in increasing proportion of cases. We aimed to evaluate a method to detect Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) and Salmonella Paratyphi A (S. Paratyphi) in febrile patients in Bangladesh. We conducted a prospective study enrolling patients with fever> 38°C admitted to two large urban hospitals and two outpatient clinics located in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We developed and evaluated a method combining short culture with a new molecular assay to simultaneously d...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Abstract In February 2018, a typhoid fever outbreak caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Typhi), resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolones, and third-generation cephalosporins, was reported in Pakistan. During November 2016-September 2017, 339 cases of this extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Typhi strain were reported in Pakistan, mostly in Karachi and Hyderabad; one travel-associated case was also reported from the United Kingdom (1). More cases have been detected in Karachi and Hyderabad as surveillance efforts have been strengthened, with recent reports inc...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
Abstract With prequalification of a typhoid conjugate vaccine by the World Health Organization, countries are deciding whether and at what geographic scale to provide the vaccine. Optimal local data to clarify typhoid risk are expensive and often unavailable. To determine whether quantitative real-time PCR can be used as a tool to detect typhoidal Salmonella DNA in the environment and approximate the burden of enteric fever, we tested water samples from urban Dhaka, where enteric fever burden is high, and rural Mirzapur, where enteric fever burden is low and sporadic. Sixty-six percent (38/59) of the water sources...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Conclusions: Typhoid fever was frequent among immigrants to endemic areas. Travelers returning from endemic areas with suspected typhoid fever should be treated empirically with third-generation cephalosporin after obtaining appropriate cultures. Moreover, preventive measurements such as education on food and water hygiene, and effective vaccination of travelers should be practiced widely among travelers to endemic areas to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID: 30410688 [PubMed]
Source: Oman Medical Journal - Category: Middle East Health Tags: Oman Med J Source Type: research
ConclusionFrom these observations, it appears that AMR inS. Typhi will continue to emerge leading to treatment failure, changes in antimicrobial policy and further resistance developing inS. Typhi isolates and other Gram-negative bacteria in endemic regions. The deployment of typhoid conjugate vaccines to control the disease in endemic regions may be the best defence.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
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