Selected cardiovascular risk factors in early stages of chronic kidney disease

AbstractCardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke and atherosclerosis, are common in patients with chronic kidney disease. Aside from the standard biomarkers, measured to determine cardiovascular risk, new ones have emerged: markers of oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation, vascular endothelium dysfunction, atherosclerosis, organ calcification and fibrosis. Unfortunately, their utility for routine clinical application remains to be elucidated. A causal relationship between new markers and cardiovascular diseases in patients with chronic kidney disease remains to be established. First of all, there is a lack of large, randomized trials. Moreover, most studies focus on patients with end-stage renal disease as well as on dialysed patients. In such patients, cardiovascular diseases are already present and advanced while early detection of cardiovascular disease risk factor in patients with early-stages of chronic kidney disease would allow more precise prognosis and, as a result, changes in treatment algorithm. In this article, we conduct a comprehensive review of literature for publications relating to cardiovascular risk factors in patients with early-stages of chronic kidney disease. Overall, there are many encouraging advances in detection of cardiovascular risk factors that are making the future more promising for patients suffering from chronic kidney disease.
Source: International Urology and Nephrology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

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