Concise whole blood transcriptional signatures for incipient tuberculosis: a systematic review and patient-level pooled meta-analysis

Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: The Lancet Respiratory MedicineAuthor(s): Rishi K Gupta, Carolin T Turner, Cristina Venturini, Hanif Esmail, Molebogeng X Rangaka, Andrew Copas, Marc Lipman, Ibrahim Abubakar, Mahdad NoursadeghiSummaryBackgroundMultiple blood transcriptional signatures have been proposed for identification of active and incipient tuberculosis. We aimed to compare the performance of systematically identified candidate signatures for incipient tuberculosis and to benchmark these against WHO targets.MethodsWe did a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis. We searched Medline and Embase for candidate whole blood mRNA signatures discovered with the primary objective of diagnosis of active or incipient tuberculosis, compared with controls who were healthy or had latent tuberculosis infection. We tested the performance of eligible signatures in whole blood transcriptomic datasets, in which sampling before tuberculosis diagnosis was done and time to disease was available. Culture-confirmed and clinically or radiologically diagnosed pulmonary or extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases were included. Non-progressor (individuals who remained tuberculosis-free during follow-up) samples with less than 6 months of follow-up from the date of sample collection were excluded, as were participants with prevalent tuberculosis and those who received preventive therapy. Scores were calculated for candidate signatures for each participant ...
Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

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AbstractThe Vi polysaccharide typhoid fever vaccine (TFV) provides incomplete protection against typhoid fever. BCG, the vaccine against tuberculosis, can potentiate immune responses to other vaccines through induction of trained innate immunity and heterologous adaptive immunity. We performed an explorative, randomized, noncontrolled open trial to investigate whether BCG vaccination increases humoral and cellular response to TFV and whether BCG and TFV modulate nonspecific immune responses. Thirty volunteers were randomized to receive either TFV alone or BCG followed by TFV after 2  weeks. Ex vivo leukocyte responses...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Authors: Meyer D, Smit DP Abstract Both infective and neoplastic eyelid and orbital conditions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients are often the result of opportunistic or co-infections (OI). In most cases, these clinical findings in younger patients alert the physician to suspected underlying HIV infection. When the eyelids and periorbital skin are primarily involved in OI with varicella-zoster virus it is called Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus. Co-infection with a Pox virus manifests as molluscum contagiosum eruptions. Orbital cellulitis is secondary to various organisms (Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
Source: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Ocul Immunol Inflamm Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: Preventive Veterinary MedicineAuthor(s): Julio Isla, Mariana Boadella, Jose Antonio Ortiz, Christian GortázarAbstractMycobacterial diseases are important health issues in farmed deer. The single intradermal tuberculin test is the standard test for tuberculosis testing in deer. We studied two factors which might influence the response of deer to skin testing: the inoculation site and the injection device. Deer included in this study were 2.5 years old farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) hinds (n = 80). Two areas of 3 cm ×&thinsp...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
ConclusionResistance to first-line TB drugs is higher in extra-pulmonary TB isolates than pulmonary isolates. Nearly one-fourth of all M. tuberculosis clinical strains were resistant to the antibiotics tested in mono-resistant or multi-resistant manners. Women had greater resistance to TB drug ethambutol as compared to men. Meanwhile, extra-pulmonary TB specimens, specifically that from tissue cultures, showed greater resistance to Isoniazid than other clinical specimens.
Source: Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research
ConclusionTuberculous mastitis is extremely rare variant of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. However, it should be kept in the mind of physicians and pathologists while approaching a breast mass, especially in endemic area.
Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: The Lancet Respiratory MedicineAuthor(s): Hridesh Mishra, Byron W P Reeve, Zaida Palmer, Judy Caldwell, Tania Dolby, Charissa C Naidoo, Jennifer G Jackson, Samuel G Schumacher, Claudia M Denkinger, Andreas H Diacon, Paul D van Helden, Florian M Marx, Robin M Warren, Grant TheronSummaryBackgroundXpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Ultra) is a new test for tuberculosis undergoing global roll-out. We assessed the performance of Ultra compared with Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) in an HIV-endemic setting where previous tuberculosis is frequent and current test performance is suboptimal.Method...
Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
Authors: Banu EA, Nechita A, Elkan-Cojocaru EM, Baciu G, Manole A, Chelaru L Abstract Introduction: In the context of the global tuberculosis (TB) burden, children represent 10% of all cases, with high incidence rates still reported by many regions worldwide. The study aim was to determine whether there is a correlation between TB clinical diagnosis and low birth weight in children at various ages. Material and methods: The study was conducted between 2010 and 2014, on a group of 1783 pediatric patients and a subgroup of 137 pediatric patients with low birth weight (LBW). Data were collected from patients' reco...
Source: Archives of Medical Science - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Arch Med Sci Source Type: research
Conclusions: The technique used was adequate to guide surveillance actions in the country and allows articulation between local surveillance efforts and other sectors to resolve health problems caused by infectious and parasitic diseases and associated factors. PMID: 32051684 [PubMed]
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research
ConclusionTaken together, these results demonstrate that PAS resistance and mutations in thekatG gene, inhA promoter or oxyR–ahpC intergenic region in INH-resistant M. tuberculosis have little effect on pasiniazid susceptibility.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionThe study described key factors associated with TB and showed the different epidemiological characteristics between the three groups compared. The findings support the need for migrant-specific TB elimination action plans if TB elimination targets are to be achieved.
Source: Journal of Public Health - Category: Health Management Source Type: research
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