Theorizing on Historical Trends in Body Temperature, Burden of Inflammation, and Life Expectancy

In this study, we analyzed 677,423 human body temperature measurements from three different cohort populations spanning 157 years of measurement and 197 birth years. We found that men born in the early 19th century had temperatures 0.59°C higher than men today, with a monotonic decrease of -0.03°C per birth decade. Temperature has also decreased in women by -0.32°C since the 1890s with a similar rate of decline (-0.029°C per birth decade). Although one might posit that the differences among cohorts reflect systematic measurement bias due to the varied thermometers and methods used to obtain temperatures, we believe this explanation to be unlikely. The question of whether mean body temperature is changing over time is not merely a matter of idle curiosity. Human body temperature is a crude surrogate for basal metabolic rate which, in turn, has been linked to both longevity (higher metabolic rate, shorter life span) and body size (lower metabolism, greater body mass). We speculated that the differences observed in temperature between the 19th century and today are real and that the change over time provides important physiologic clues to alterations in human health and longevity since the Industrial Revolution. Resting metabolic rate is the largest component of a typical modern human's energy expenditure, comprising around 65% of daily energy expenditure for a sedentary individual. Heat is a byproduct of metabolic processes, the reason nearly all w...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

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Malaria is one of the three most lethal infectious diseases. Unlike AIDS and tuberculosis, malaria is unique in that the parasite must complete a complex differentiation program in its mosquito vector for transmission to occur (1) (Fig. 1). Despite significant progress made in the last couple of decades, our mechanistic...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Commentaries Source Type: research
Chen Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a global threat to not only public health impacts but also clinical and economic outcomes. During the past decades, there have been many studies focusing on surveillance, mechanisms, and diagnostics of AMR in infectious diseases but the impacts on public health, clinical and economic outcomes due to emergence of these AMRs are rarely studied and reported. This review was aimed to summarize the findings from published studies to report the outcome impacts due to AMR of malaria, tuberculosis and HIV and briefly discuss the implications for application to other infectious dis...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Publication date: March 2020Source: The Lancet Global Health, Volume 8, Issue 3Author(s): Charbel El Bcheraoui, Honoré Mimche, Yodé Miangotar, Varsha Sarah Krish, Faye Ziegeweid, Kris J Krohn, Martin Herbas Ekat, Jobert Richie Nansseu, Zacharie Tsala Dimbuene, Helen Elizabeth Olsen, Roger C K Tine, Christopher M Odell, Christopher E Troeger, Nicholas J Kassebaum, Tamer Farag, Simon I Hay, Ali H MokdadSummaryBackgroundPeer-reviewed literature on health is almost exclusively published in English, limiting the uptake of research for decision making in francophone African countries. We used results from the Globa...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Abstract Treating malaria in HIV co-infected individuals should consider potential drug-drug interactions. Artemether-lumefantrine is the most widely recommended treatment for uncomplicated malaria globally. Lumefantrine is metabolized by CYP3A4, an enzyme that commonly-used antiretrovirals often induce or inhibit. A population pharmacokinetic meta-analysis was conducted using individual participant data from ten studies, with 6,100 lumefantrine concentrations from 793 non-pregnant adult participants (41% HIV-malaria co-infected, 36% malaria-infected, 20% HIV-infected, and 3% healthy volunteers). Lumefantrine expo...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
Conclusions: The technique used was adequate to guide surveillance actions in the country and allows articulation between local surveillance efforts and other sectors to resolve health problems caused by infectious and parasitic diseases and associated factors. PMID: 32051684 [PubMed]
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research
Abstract Herein, we report the synthesis and evaluation of pyrvinium-based antimalarial and antitubercular compounds. Pyrvinium is an FDA approved drug for the treatment of pinworm infection, and it has been reported to have antiparasitic and antimicrobial activities. Pyrvinium contains quinoline core coupled with pyrrole. We replaced the pyrrole with various aryl or heteroaryl substituents to generate pyrvinium analogs. The profiling of these compounds against malaria parasite P. falciparum 3D7 revealed analogs with better antimalarial activity than pyrvinium pamoate. Compound 14 and 16 showed IC50 of 23 nM ...
Source: Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Bioorg Med Chem Lett Source Type: research
February 14, 2020 Chapel Hill, NCToday, IntraHealth International’s board of directors announced Polly Dunford will be IntraHealth’s next president and CEO. She will assume the role on March 16.Dunford is joining IntraHealth after nearly 20 years of service with the US Agency for International Development (USAID) in Cambodia, Haiti, Jordan, Mozambique, Nigeria and Washington, D.C., most recently as the global director for HIV/AIDS. In this role, she led the agency’s efforts to help countries achieve and sustain epidemic control of HIV/AIDS under the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief ...
Source: IntraHealth International - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Leadership and Governance Source Type: news
[ANGOP] Luanda -The chairperson of the Global Fund, Donald Kaberuka, reaffirmed this Monday, in Luanda, his support to the Angolan Government, with the aim of eradicating diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis and HIV / AIDS, by 2030.
Source: AllAfrica News: Malaria - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
ConclusionsThe year 2020 will be crucial for the future of the global response to NTDs. Progress against the 2020 roadmap targets will be assessed, a new 2021 –2030 NTD roadmap will be launched, and the London Declaration commitments will need to be renewed. It is hoped that during the coming decade the global response will be able to further build on today’s successes, align with the new global health and development frameworks, but also keep focused attention on NTDs and mobilize enough resources to see the effort effectively through to 2030.
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
[AIM] Maputo -Mozambique's Coordination Mechanism for the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria on Wednesday reached consensus on the need to create strong and resilient health systems that can respond effectively to the challenges of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
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