Marek’s disease virus as a CRISPR/Cas9 delivery system to defend against avian leukosis virus infection in chickens

Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Yongzhen Liu, Zengkun Xu, Yu Zhang, Mengmeng Yu, Suyan Wang, Yulong Gao, Changjun Liu, Yanping Zhang, Li Gao, Xiaole Qi, Hongyu Cui, Qing Pan, Kai Li, Xiaomei WangAbstractThe CRISPR/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system is a powerful gene-editing tool originally discovered as an integral mediator of bacterial adaptive immunity. Recently, this technology has been explored for its potential utility in providing new and unique treatments for viral infection. Marek’s disease virus (MDV) and avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), major immunosuppressive viruses, cause significant economic losses to the chicken industry. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of using MDV as a CRISPR/Cas9-delivery system to directly target and disrupt the reverse-transcribed products of the ALV-J RNA genome during its infection cycle in vitro and in vivo. We first screened multiple potential guide RNA (gRNA) target sites in the ALV-J genome and identified several optimized targets capable of effectively disrupting the latently integrated viral genome and providing efficient defense against new infection by ALV-J in cells. The optimal single-gRNAs and Cas9-expression cassettes were inserted into the genome of an MDV vaccine strain. The results indicated that engineered MDV stably expressing ALV-J-targeting CRISPR/Cas9 efficiently resisted ALV-J challenge in host cells. These findings demonstrated the CR...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

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Authors: Malik YS, Sircar S, Bhat S, Sharun K, Dhama K, Dadar M, Tiwari R, Chaicumpa W Abstract Coronaviruses are the well-known cause of severe respiratory, enteric and systemic infections in a wide range of hosts including man, mammals, fish, and avian. The scientific interest on coronaviruses increased after the emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) outbreaks in 2002-2003 followed by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV). This decade's first CoV, named 2019-nCoV, emerged from Wuhan, China, and declared as "Public Health Emergency of International Concern" on Ja...
Source: Veterinary Quarterly - Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Vet Q Source Type: research
AbstractThe reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) group of retroviruses infects a wide range of avian species, including chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, quail, and prairie chickens. The infection can result in immunosuppression, runting syndrome, high mortality, acute reticular cell neoplasia, or T- and/or B-cell lymphoma. One PCR positive chicken spleen sample obtained in a previous study in addition to one Marek ʼs disease and three fowl pox (FP) vaccine samples were investigated in this study. A PCR assay was performed to detect the presence of REV provirus DNA in these samples. The results indicated the contamination of ...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
“Everyone knows that pestilences have a way of recurring in the world,” observes Albert Camus in his novel The Plague. “Yet somehow we find it hard to believe in ones that crash down on our heads from a blue sky. There have been as many plagues as wars in history; yet plagues and wars always take people by surprise.” Camus was imagining a fictional outbreak of plague in 1948 in Oran, a port city in northwest Algeria. But at a time when the world is reeling from a very real microbial emergency sparked by the emergence of a novel coronavirus in Wuhan, central China, his observations are as pertinent a...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized 2019-nCoV health ideas Source Type: news
Why are some people better able to fight off the flu than others? Part of the answer, according to a new study, is related to the first flu strain we encounter in childhood.Scientists from UCLA and the University of Arizona have found that people ’s ability to fight off the flu virus is determined not only by the subtypes of flu they have had throughout their lives, but also by the sequence in which they are been infected by the viruses. Their study is published in the open-access journal PLoS Pathogens.The research offers an explanation for why some people fare much worse than others when infected with the...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
AbstractNewcastle disease (ND), caused by virulentAvian avulavirus 1 (AAvV 1), affects variety of avian species around the globe. Several AAvV 1 viruses of different genotypes have recently emerged with varying clinical impacts on their susceptible hosts. Although experimental infection with velogenic and mesogenic strains in chickens and pigeons is well-studied, nevertheless, there exists a paucity of data for comparative variations in serum biochemistry profile of susceptible hosts upon challenge with isolates of varying pathogenicities. With this background, a comparative assessment of a range of serum biochemical param...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The LIPS method could differentiate between sera from experimentally infected and vaccinated animals. However, in human samples obtained more than 6 months after the pandemic, LIPS was specific, but not sufficiently sensitive for ascertaining cases by exposure. PMID: 31955522 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Respiratory Care - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Influenza Other Respir Viruses Source Type: research
Abstract Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been used as a vector in the development of vaccines and gene delivery. In the present study, we generated the thermostable recombinant NDV (rNDV) expressing the different forms of hemagglutinin (HA) of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 based on the full-length cDNA clone of thermostable TS09-C strain. The recombinant thermostable Newcastle disease viruses, rTS-HA, rTS-HA1 and rTS-tPAs/HA1, expressed the HA, HA1 or modified HA1 protein with the tissue plasminogen activator signal sequence (tPAs), respectively. The rNDVs displayed similar thermostability...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
AbstractThe avian respiratory tract is a common entry route for many pathogens and an important delivery route for vaccination in the poultry industry. Immune responses in the avian lung have mostly been studied in vivo due to the lack of robust, relevant in vitro and ex vivo models mimicking the microenvironment. Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) have the major advantages of maintaining the 3-dimensional architecture of the lung and includes heterogeneous cell populations. PCLS have been obtained from a number of mammalian species and from chicken embryos. However, as the embryonic lung is physiologically undifferentiated ...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Authors: Dharanesha NK, Dhama K, Mariappan AK, Munuswamy P, Mohd IY, Tiwari R, Karthik K, Bhatt P, Reddy MR Abstract Gallibacterium anatis is a Gram-negative bacterium of the Pasteurellaceae family that resides normally in the respiratory and reproductive tracts in poultry. It is a major cause of oophoritis, salpingitis, and peritonitis, decreases egg production and mortality in hens thereby severely affecting animal welfare and overall productivity by poultry industries across Europe, Asia, America, and Africa. In addition, it has the ability to infect wider host range including domesticated and free-ranging avian...
Source: Veterinary Quarterly - Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Vet Q Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Qingtao Liu, Jing Yang, Xinmei Huang, Yuzhuo Liu, Kaikai Han, Dongmin Zhao, Lijiao Zhang, Yin LiAbstractAvian influenza subtype H9N2 infection is a mild but highly contagious disease that is associated with a decrease in the efficacy of vaccine interventions, and an increase in susceptibility to secondary infections in poultry. However, the immune evasion mechanism of H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in chickens is poorly understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) are immune cells of major importance, involved in innate ...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
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