Pharmaceutical Ethics and Grassroots Activism in the United States: A Social History Perspective

AbstractWomen ’s health activists laid the groundwork for passage of the law that created the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1906. The pharmaceutical and food industries fought regulatory reforms then and continue to do so now. We examine public health activism in the Progressive Era, the postwar era and the present day. The women’s health movement began in the 1960s, and criticized both the pharmaceutical industry and the medical establishment. In the 1990s, patient advocacy groups began accepting industry funds; thousands of commercially-funded groups now dominate the advocacy landscape. As phar ma funding became normalized, concerns arose regarding a) the lack of transparency and public accountability regarding funding, b) the distortion of groups’ agendas, and c) the ability of pharma-funded groups to dominate the discourse and override less well-resourced patient and health advocacy gr oups. Although industry-funded groups argue that funding allows them to provide useful services, the trade-off in health risks, exorbitant prices and distorted information is far too high. Sincerity is beside the point; patients and the industry have differing interests when it comes to drug safety and efficacy, drug information and drug prices. A growing resistance movement is asserting the values of its activist predecessors and opposing the prevailing culture of pharma-funded advocacy.
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

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Discussion and conclusion: Maybe it was a case of drug-induced liver disease, however therapeutic dosages of all administered drugs only once. The mechanisms involved were not investigated, but may be the result of allergic and immunologic aspects caused by ketoprofen and facilitated by a history of hypersensitivity to other NSAIDs as reported by the patient. As for jaundice can be attributed to drug toxicity since laboratory parameters did not reveal any evidence of liver disease. PMID: 32079429 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol Source Type: research
Authors: Fenizia C, Saulle I, Clerici M, Biasin M Abstract Introduction: Since the identification of HIV, several studies reported the unusual case of small groups of subjects showing natural resistance to HIV-infection. These subjects are referred to as HIV-1-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals and include people located in different regions of the world, with diverse ethnic backgrounds and routes of exposure. The mechanism/s responsible for protection from infection in HESN individuals are basically indefinite and most likely are multifactorial.Areas covered: Host factors, including genetic background as well...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research
Conclusion: HIV patients with the disseminated TB have higher risk for ocular TB. As ocular symptoms are rare, still all of them need a detailed ocular examination to look for active ocular TB which will reclassify isolated pulmonary/extrapulmonary to disseminated TB warranting a detailed systemic examination. PMID: 32083986 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Ocul Immunol Inflamm Source Type: research
Authors: Shi R, Luo Y, Li S, Kong M, Liu X, Yu M, Wu J, Huang L, Yang Z Abstract Background: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. Cyclophilin A (CypA), also known as PPIA, has been identified to play a vital role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular or inflammatory diseases. However, no studies have examined the relationship between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA) and the development of KD and KD with or without coronary artery lesions (CALs).Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate whether PPIA SNPs are associated ...
Source: Immunological Investigations - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Immunol Invest Source Type: research
Publication date: February 2020Source: Alter, Volume 14, Issue 1Author(s):
Source: ALTER - European Journal of Disability Research - Category: Disability Source Type: research
Conclusions: Our algorithm can be integrated with many other algorithms. In this research, we use only the k-means clustering algorithm with different k values. In future research, we propose several directions: (1) checking the effect of the clustering algorithm to build an ensemble clustering space. (2) Finding poor clustering results based on the training data, (3) reducing the volume of the data by combining similar points based on the EC. Availability and implementation: The KNIME workflow, implementing GrpClassifierEC, is available at https://malikyousef.com. PMID: 32082410 [PubMed]
Source: Algorithms for Molecular Biology : AMB - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Algorithms Mol Biol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 February 2020Source: Nano EnergyAuthor(s): Jae Choul Yu, Jingsong Sun, Naresh Chandrasekaran, Christopher.J. Dunn, Anthony.S.R. Chesman, Jacek.J. JasieniakAbstractSemi-transparent perovskite solar cells (ST-PeSCs) have received great attention because of their excellent performance and promising application in areas such as tandem devices and building integrated photovoltaics (BIPVs). Critical across all these applications is achieving both high efficiency and stable photovoltaic performance of such devices. Realizing both of these properties simultaneously has not been possible using ...
Source: Nano Energy - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 February 2020Source: Nano EnergyAuthor(s): Guoxu Wang, Wei Chen, Guangliang Chen, Jun Huang, Changsheng Song, Dongliang Chen, Yun Du, Chaorong Li, Kostya Ken OstrikovAbstractIn-situ engineering multiple-phase transition-metal based electrocatalyst with excellent performances for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is still a major challenge in the electrocatalysis field. Herein, the Mo-Ni-Co trimetallic selenide nanorod arrays are synthesized on a plasma-treated Ni-Co foam (MoSe2-NiSe2-CoSe2/PNCF). The synergistic effects of heterostructured crystal interfaces, the formed 1T-2H mixture p...
Source: Nano Energy - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 February 2020Source: Nano EnergyAuthor(s): Zhizai Li, Faguang Zhou, Qian Wang, Liming Ding, Zhiwen JinAbstractWith its suitable bandgap (
Source: Nano Energy - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
Publication date: June 2020Source: Nano Today, Volume 32Author(s): Minfeng Huo, Liying Wang, Yu Chen, Jianlin ShiAbstractBased on the great advances of the nanomaterials and nanotechnology in the last decade, nanomedicine combining the nanomaterials and nanobiotechnology has been attracting intensive attentions worldwide owing to its bright prospects in generating numerous theranostic modalities against various pathological lesions. Nevertheless, synthetic nanomaterials-based nanomedicine is now facing critical challenges of less effective targeting and insufficient accumulations at pathological sites, raising the critical...
Source: Nano Today - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
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