Si-Ni-San Prevents Reserpine-Induced Depression by Inhibiting Inflammation and Regulating CYP450 Enzymatic Activity

This study was performed to verify whether the antidepressant effects of SNS were related to its anti-inflammatory effects, the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymatic activity. In our study, behavioral tests such as the forced swim test, sucrose preference test and open-field test were evaluated to ensure the establishment of depressive rats. The levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the serum, liver, and hippocampus of rats were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Furthermore, the key proteins NF-κB, BDNF, and TrkB were analyzed by Western blot (WB) analysis in the hippocampus. In addition, CYP450 enzymatic activity analysis was performed using LC-MS/MS in conjunction with drug and statistics (DAS 3.0) after oral administration of six probe drugs. Our results showed that SNS attenuated reserpine-induced increases in IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α expression in the serum, liver, and hippocampus. The levels of NF-κB, BDNF, and TrkB in the hippocampus of depressive rats were also altered. According to the pharmacokinetic parameters, SNS had moderate inhibitory effects in the reserpine-induced depression model on CYP1A2, CYP2D1, CYP2E1, and CYP3A2, but no significant metabolic changes to CYP2C6 and CYP2D2. These findings suggested that SNS has a protective effect on reserpine-induced depressive rats, which may be related to the improvement of the inflammatory factors, the level of BDNF...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Related Links:

Up to 38% of individuals with advanced dementia experience clinical depression. Although studies demonstrate lower rates of clinical depression as dementia advances, this may be attributed to the difficulty of assessment at this stage. Clinical interviews are thorough in assessing depression, though they are time- and resource-contingent. As such, healthcare providers often turn to screening tools or scales. However, conventional tools for assessing depression have problems with validity in this population.
Source: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association - Category: Health Management Authors: Source Type: research
There has been a growing emphasis towards emotional well-being in the care of older adults. This is especially important with regards to residents in a nursing home, where they can often feel marginalized or depressed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of pet-therapy in improving the mood and well-being in this subset of the population.
Source: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association - Category: Health Management Authors: Source Type: research
Nursing home (NH) residents are at increased risk for malnutrition compared to community-dwelling older adults. Poor nutrition is associated with depression, functional decline, and higher 1-year mortality. Communal dining environments create a social dining atmosphere that increases the amount of food being consumed.
Source: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association - Category: Health Management Authors: Source Type: research
Parkinson ’s disease (PD) is a multifaceted condition that impacts a wide range of functions, including speech. The effect of loss of communication ability creates a cascade of effects which includes decreased participation in social events, social isolation, and potentially depression. If improvements in v oice occur, the cascade can be diverted. A physiological basis, as well as research evidence, supports use of singing to improve voice of those with PD. The implementation of a choir for those with PD has the potential to provide a socially engaging intervention, which is cost effective.
Source: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association - Category: Health Management Authors: Source Type: research
This study investigated whether this risk varied across months and/or methods of suicide. METHODS: Time, date, method (eg, firearm, poisoning), and demographic information for 35,338 suicides were collected from the National Violent Death Reporting System for the years 2003-2010. Time of fatal injury was grouped into 1-hour bins and compared to the estimated hourly proportion of the population awake from the American Time Use Survey for 2003-2010. Negative binomial modeling then generated hourly incidence risk ratios (IRRs) of suicide. Risks were then aggregated into 4 categories: morning (6:00 am to 11:59 am), afterno...
Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: J Clin Psychiatry Source Type: research
Authors: Velasco Á, Rodríguez-Revuelta J, Olié E, Abad I, Fernández-Peláez A, Cazals A, Guillaume S, de la Fuente-Tomás L, Jiménez-Treviño L, Gutiérrez L, García-Portilla P, Bobes J, Courtet P, Sáiz PA Abstract BACKGROUND.: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have emerged as important peripheral inflammatory biomarkers. Recent data suggest a possible role of the immune system in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior (SB). The aim of this study is to evaluate th...
Source: Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Psychiatry Source Type: research
The objectives of this study are: (i) to assess the frequency of self-stigma in a multicentric nonselected psychiatric rehabilitation SMI and ASD sample; and (ii) to investigate the correlates of elevated self-stigma in different SMI conditions and in ASD. METHODS.: A total of 738 SMI or ASD outpatients were recruited from the French National Centers of Reference for Psychiatric Rehabilitation cohort (REHABase). Evaluations included sociodemographic data, illness characteristics, and standardized scales for clinical severity, quality of life, satisfaction with life, wellbeing, personal recovery, a large cognitive batte...
Source: Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Psychiatry Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS.: The findings indicate a potential beneficial role of T-PEMF therapy as an augmentation treatment to ongoing pharmacotherapy in treatment-resistant depression. PMID: 32093804 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Psychiatry Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS.: This study provided an atlas of genetic correlations between psychiatric disorders and plasma proteome, providing novel clues for pathogenetic and biomarkers, therapeutic studies of psychiatric disorders. PMID: 32093803 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Psychiatry Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS.: Our results confirm the multidimensional nature of mania. Hyperactivity, increased speech, and thought disorder appear as core features of the clinical construct. The mood experience could be heterogeneous, depending on the co-occurrence of euphoric (elevated mood) and dysphoric (irritability and depressive mood) emotions of varying intensity. Results are also discussed regarding their relationship with other constitutive elements of bipolar disorder, such as mixed and depressive states. PMID: 32093802 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Psychiatry Source Type: research
More News: Brain | China Health | Depression | Drugs & Pharmacology | International Medicine & Public Health | Liver | Neurology | Statistics | Study | Urology & Nephrology