The importance of vector control for the control and elimination of vector-borne diseases

by Anne L. Wilson, Orin Courtenay, Louise A. Kelly-Hope, Thomas W. Scott, Willem Takken, Steve J. Torr, Steve W. Lindsay Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) such as malaria, dengue, and leishmaniasis exert a huge burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly affecting the poorest of the poor. The principal method by which these diseases are controlled is through vector control, which has a long and distinguishe d history. Vector control, to a greater extent than drugs or vaccines, has been responsible for shrinking the map of many VBDs. Here, we describe the history of vector control programmes worldwide from the late 1800s to date. Pre 1940, vector control relied on a thorough understanding of vector ecol ogy and epidemiology, and implementation of environmental management tailored to the ecology and behaviour of local vector species. This complex understanding was replaced by a simplified dependency on a handful of insecticide-based tools, particularly for malaria control, without an adequate unders tanding of entomology and epidemiology and without proper monitoring and evaluation. With the rising threat from insecticide-resistant vectors, global environmental change, and the need to incorporate more vector control interventions to eliminate these diseases, we advocate for continued investment in evidence-based vector control. There is a need to return to vector control approaches based on a thorough knowledge of the determinants of pathogen transmission, which utili...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research

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Lassa fever outbreaks West Africa have caused up to 10,000 deaths annually. Primary infection occurs from contact with Lassa virus-infected rodents and exposure to their excreta, blood, or meat. Incubation takes 2 to 21  days. Symptoms are difficult to distinguish from malaria, typhoid, dengue, yellow fever, and other viral hemorrhagic fevers. Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic, to mild, to severe fulminant disease. Ribavirin can improve outcomes. Overall mortality is between 1% and 15%. Lassa fever s hould be considered in the differential diagnosis with travel to West Africa. There is an urgent need for...
Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, we asked whether ZIKV infection during pregnancy impairs transplacental transfer of IgG. We enrolled pregnant women with fever or rash in a prospective cohort in Vitoria, Brazil during the recent ZIKV epidemic. ZIKV and dengue virus (DENV)-specific IgG, ZIKV and DENV neutralizing antibodies, and routine vaccine antigen- specific IgG were measured in maternal samples collected around delivery and 20 paired cord blood samples. We concluded that 8 of these mothers were infected with ZIKV during pregnancy and 12 were ZIKV-uninfected. The magnitude of flavivirus-specific IgG, neutralizing antibody, and vaccine-el...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
More than 1,500 deaths and 2,500 people sickened – that’s the recent account of the ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) raging in the country since last August, and recently declared a public health emergency of international concern. Experts say efforts to contain the virus are hindered by biological, public health, political, and cultural issues, but we looked around what digital health technologies could do to mitigate the spread and the devastation of the infectious disease. The Spaghetti-like virus… The lethal Ebola virus first appeared in 1976 around a river in Congo &nda...
Source: The Medical Futurist - Category: Information Technology Authors: Tags: Future of Medicine Africa AI artificial intelligence Congo digital digital health digital maps disease disease outbreak ebola epidemic Innovation technology Source Type: blogs
Discussion Dengue is an important arboviral infection that affects about 40% of the world population. It is found mainly in topical and subtropical areas of the world mainly in developing countries but it range is spreading including the United States. A review of common arboviruses can be found here. It is a flaviavirus with 4 distinct serotypes named DENV-1 through DENV-4 and is spread by A. aegypti a day biting mosquito. Infection with one serotype confers immunity to that serotype but not the others. It does offer some protection for cross-infection but this only lasts a few months. Incubation period is 3-14 days with ...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
Conclusions Apart West Nile virus (78), thousands of congenital microcephaly cases, fetal brain tissue damage and neurological syndromes have been associated with ZIKV infection. Unfortunately, the epidemics of this mosquito born, and a relative stable virus is on a rise. Although congenital microcephaly is a rare disorder however, due to lack of standardized diagnostic test facilities, the incidence in the geographically widespread ZIKV epidemic regions is higher. Animals studies showed that ZIKV is a neurotropic virus. It directly targets the developing embryonic brain cells by inducing apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
As I walked with him through the camp, we could hear the residents call: “Nobi vai!” (Brother Nobi!). Nobi is undoubtedly very popular in the area. As a leader among Doctors of the World’s volunteers, he is also a major pillar in community work. Nevertheless, his gestures and words are humble, smart, and calm. He discusses quietly about the need for a clinic for the inhabitants, but then he wells up as he starts to talk about his 2-year-old son. Being a father, a community leader, and a community worker is a heavy burden. His warm human nature feels like a healing energy for the inhabitants of the camp wh...
Source: Doctors of the World News - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Uncategorised Source Type: news
(CNN) — From climate change to superbugs, the World Health Organization has laid out 10 big threats to our global health in 2019. And unless these threats get addressed, millions of lives will be in jeopardy. Here’s a snapshot of 10 urgent health issues, according to the United Nations’ public health agency: Not vaccinating when you can One of the most controversial recent health topics in the US is now an international concern. “Vaccine hesitancy — the reluctance or refusal to vaccinate despite the availability of vaccines — threatens to reverse progress made in tackling vaccine-prevent...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health News CNN Local TV Source Type: news
​BY GREGORY TAYLOR, DO; DAWN ZELENKA-JOSHOWITZ, DO; &ANDREW TAECKER, DOA 34-year-old man presented with intermittent fever and body aches for 10 days. He had been visiting family in India, and the symptoms began when he returned home. His fever had been as high as 104°F, and he was experiencing nausea, two episodes of bilious emesis, body aches, nonspecific abdominal pain, and multiple episodes of watery, nonbloody diarrhea.He said he knew of no tuberculosis exposure or ill contacts, and he was current on his routine influenza and hepatitis A vaccines. His temperature was 101.4°F (he had taken acetaminophen t...
Source: The Case Files - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Blog Posts Source Type: research
Source: World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM). Published: 12/5/2018. During the past four years, Venezuela has plunged into a humanitarian, economic, and health crisis. This 56-minute webinar discusses how In this context, the rapid resurgence of previously well-controlled diseases, such as vaccine-preventable (measles, diphtheria) and arthropod-borne (malaria, dengue) diseases, has turned them into epidemics of unprecedented magnitudes. In response to Venezuela ’s rapidly decaying situation, a massive population exodus is ongoing toward neighboring countries. (Video or Multimedia)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Abstract Vectors are living organisms that transmit infectious diseases from an infected animal to humans or another animal. Biological vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, and sand flies carry pathogens that multiply within their bodies prior to delivery to a new host. The increased prevalence of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) such as Aedes-borne dengue, Chikungunya (CHIKV), Zika (ZIKV), malaria, tick-borne disease (TBD), and scrub typhus has a huge impact on the health of both humans and livestock worldwide. In particular, zoonotic diseases transmitted by mosquitoes and ticks place a considerable burden on public h...
Source: Current Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Curr Med Chem Source Type: research
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