Thoughts on the evolution of Core Environmental Responses in yeasts

Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: Fungal BiologyAuthor(s): Alistair J.P. Brown, Daniel E. Larcombe, Arnab PradhanAbstractThe model yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, display Core Environmental Responses (CERs) that include the induction of a core set of stress genes in response to diverse environmental stresses. CERs underlie the phenomenon of stress cross-protection, whereby exposure to one type of stress can provide protection against subsequent exposure to a second type of stress. CERs have probably arisen through the accumulation, over evolutionary time, of protective anticipatory responses (“adaptive prediction”). CERs have been observed in other evolutionarily divergent fungi but, interestingly, not in the pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans. We argue that this is because we have not looked in the right place. In response to specific host inputs, C. albicans does activate anticipatory responses that protect it against impending attack from the immune system. Therefore, we suggest that C. albicans has evolved a CER that reflects the environmental challenges it faces in host niches.Graphical abstractDomesticated yeasts such as S. cerevisiae display Core Environmental Responses that have evolved to provide protective anticipatory responses that confer cross-protection against diverse environmental stresses. The pathogenic yeast, C. albicans, does not appear to display stress cross-protection, but does display ...
Source: Fungal Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research

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Publication date: June 2020Source: Enzyme and Microbial Technology, Volume 137Author(s): Sara Arana-Peña, Nathalia S. Rios, Carmen Mendez-Sanchez, Yuliya Lokha, Luciana R.B. Gonçalves, Roberto Fernández-LafuenteAbstractA strategy to obtain biocatalysts formed by three enzyme layers has been designed using lipases A and B from Candida antarctica (CALA and CALB), the lipases from Rhizomucor miehei (RML) and Thermomyces lanuginosus (TLL), and the artificial chimeric phospholipase Lecitase Ultra (LEU). The enzymes were initially immobilized via interfacial activation on octyl-agarose beads, treated with po...
Source: Enzyme and Microbial Technology - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
ConclusionOur results showed that JZ-1 protects against HSV-2 infection, and this beneficial effect may be mediated by inducing autophagy via inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling axis.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen and relies on the Hog1-MAPK pathway to resist osmotic stress posed by the environment or during host invasions. Here, we investigated the role of SPT20 in response to osmotic stress. Testing a C. albicans spt20Δ/Δ mutant, we found it was sensitive to osmotic stress. Using sequence alignment, we identified the conserved functional domains between CaSpt20 and ScSpt20. Reconstitution of the Spt20 function in a spt20Δ/CaSPT20 complemented strain found CaSPT20 can suppress the high sensitivity to hyperosmotic stressors, a cell wall stress agent, and antifunga...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In conclusion, the current work on KR-12 suggests that dimerization together with backbone cyclization is an effective strategy for improving both potency and stability of linear antimicrobial peptides.
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Had a weird case a couple of weeks ago. My partner, who is an outstanding technical surgeon for implants (one of the best I have seen) had a stim follow up while he was on vacation. The wounds were dehiscing and the incisions looked odd (my partner has had only two infections over a 25 year career, so he is pretty damn good). I took her to the OR and removed the stim, packing the incisions open. Initial cultures were negative, but eventually grew candida. This patient was a diabetic with a... candida fungal infection with stimulator
Source: Student Doctor Network - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Pain Medicine Source Type: forums
Future Microbiology, Ahead of Print.
Source: Future Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research
Candida albicans is a leading cause of systemic bloodstream infections, and synthesis of the phospholipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is required for virulence. The psd1/ psd2/ mutant, which cannot synthesize PE by the cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG) pathway, is avirulent in the mouse model of systemic candidiasis. Similarly, an ept1/ mutant, which cannot produce PE by the Kennedy pathway, exhibits decreased kidney fungal burden in systemically infected mice. Conversely, overexpression of EPT1 results in a hypervirulent phenotype in this model. Thus, mutations that increase PE synthesis increase virulence, ...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Fungal and Parasitic Infections Source Type: research
Abstract The main aim of this short review was to assess the effect of test medium on the bioavailability of metals to the soil invertebrate Folsomia candida and the barley plant Hordeum vulgare. Solution-only exposures and sand-solution media were suitable media with control survival of > 80%. Comparing toxicity and accumulation data, LC50 and/or EC50 values as well as internal concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) were similar in the tests with different porewater composition for springtails and barley plants. Similar results for toxicity and bioaccumulation of Cd and Cu using different...
Source: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Bull Environ Contam Toxicol Source Type: research
Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is associated with a high risk of invasive fungal infections (IFI). Fluconazole is approved in the United States for Candida prophylaxis during HCT, but it does not provide coverage against molds [1]. Voriconazole, a broad-spectrum triazole active against Candida and Aspergillus species, has been increasingly used for antifungal prophylaxis for high risk HCT such as cord blood HCT and ex vivo T-cell depleted HCT recipients [2 –4]. In a randomized trial of voriconazole versus fluconazole prophylaxis in standard risk HCT recipients, the overall rates of IFI and fungal free survi...
Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation - Category: Hematology Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionOverexpression in efflux pump transporter genes together with mutations in ERG11 pave the way to fluconazole resistance among C. tropicalis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study on C. tropicalis fluconazole resistance mechanism from North India region.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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