B cells linked to effective cancer immunotherapy

(Lund University) Cancer patients responded better to immunotherapy and had a better prognosis if their melanoma tumors contained specific clusters of B cells, according to new research from Lund University in Sweden. The study is published in Nature.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

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In their article, Baldini et al. evaluated the association between immune-related adverse events (irAEs) and clinical benefit among patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with nivolumab in the Italian NSCLC expanded access program [1]. Accumulating evidence suggest that there is a correlation between irAEs incidence and therapeutic outcomes of immunotherapy. This has been widely demonstrated in several solid tumors, mostly in patients with melanoma [2] and NSCLC [3]. However, most retrospective reports in NSCLC mainly include patients of Asian ethnicity [4], and differences in treatment tolerability and o...
Source: Lung Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that GNAQ/11 mutant non-uveal melanomas are a melanoma subtype distinct both clinically and genetically from cutaneous and uveal melanoma. As they respond poorly to available treatment regimens, novel effective therapeutic approaches for affected patients are urgently needed. PMID: 32064597 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The British Journal of Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Br J Dermatol Source Type: research
In melanoma, the lymphocytic infiltrate is a prognostic parameter classified morphologically into 'brisk', 'non-brisk' and 'absent' entailing a functional association that has never been proved. Recently, it has been shown that lymphocytic populations can be very heterogeneous, and that anti-PD-1 immunotherapy supports activated T cells. Here, we characterize the immune landscape in primary melanoma by high-dimensional single cell multiplex analysis in tissue sections (MILAN technique) followed by image analysis, RT-PCR and shotgun proteomics. We observed that the brisk and non-brisk patterns are heterogeneous functional c...
Source: eLife - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Cancer Biology Source Type: research
T cell cancer neoantigens are created from peptides derived from cancer-specific aberrant proteins, such as mutated and fusion proteins, presented in complex with human leukocyte antigens on the cancer cell surface. Because expression of the aberrant target protein is exclusive to malignant cells, immunotherapy directed against neoantigens should avoid “on-target, off-tumor” toxicity. The efficacy of neoantigen vaccines in melanoma and glioblastoma and of adoptive transfer of neoantigen-specific T cells in epithelial tumors indicates that neoantigens are valid therapeutic targets. Improvements in sequencing tec...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Contributor : Peng ShenSeries Type : Expression profiling by RT-PCROrganism : Homo sapiensRecent development of integrative therapy against melanoma combines surgery, radiotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy; however, the clinical outcomes of advanced stage and recurrent melanoma are poor. As a skin cancer, melanoma is generally resistant to radiotherapy. Hence, there is an urgent need for evaluation of the mechanisms of radioresistance. The present study identified miR-335 as one of the differential expression of miRNAs in recurrent melanoma biopsies post-radiotherapy. The expression of miR-335 declined in melano...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by RT-PCR Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Abstract CDK9 is an important cell-cycle control enzyme essential in transcription, elongation, and mRNA maturation. Overexpression of CDK9 has been reported in several diseases, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and malignant melanoma. Recent research revealed that CDK9-inhibitors have a major impact on the induction of apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. Despite surprisingly promising results in in vitro and in vivo research, no CDK9 related therapy is currently allowed in cases of HCC. Furthermore, due to their high specificity, the inhibitors had no effec...
Source: Current Cancer Drug Targets - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Curr Cancer Drug Targets Source Type: research
ConclusionT-VEC represents an effective and tolerable treatment option. This is true not only for loco-regionally advanced melanoma patients, but also for patients with stable or regressive systemic metastases who develop loco-regionally acquired resistance upon treatment with immune checkpoint blockade or targeted therapy. A sensible selection of suitable patients seems to be crucial.
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
AbstractHemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ; Sendai virus) is an RNA virus that has cell fusion activity. HVJ-envelope (HVJ-E) is a UV-irradiated HVJ particle that loses viral replication and protein synthesis activity but retains cell fusion activity. We recently reported that HVJ-E has antitumor effects on several types of tumors. Here, we describe the results of a first-in-human phase I/IIa study in patients with advanced melanoma, receiving intratumoral administration of HVJ-E. The primary aim was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of HVJ-E, and the secondary aim was to examine the objective tumor response and an...
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Orloff Sato Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary eye malignancy in adults and up to 50% of patients subsequently develop systemic metastasis. Metastatic uveal melanoma (MUM) is highly resistant to immunotherapy. One of the mechanisms for resistance would be the immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment. Here, we have investigated the role of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) in UM. Both TDO and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyze tryptophan and produce kynurenine, which could cause inhibition of T cell immune responses. We first studied the expression of TDO on tumor tissue specimens obtained fro...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
AbstractAnti-PD1 treatment has improved the survival of metastatic melanoma patients, yet it is unknown which patients benefit from the treatment. In this exploratory study, we aimed to understand the effects of anti-PD1 therapy on the patients ’ immune system and discover the characteristics that would result in successful treatment. We collected peripheral blood (PB) samples from 17 immuno-oncology-naïve metastatic melanoma patients before and after 1 and 3 months of anti-PD1 therapy. In addition, matching tumor biopsies at the time of diagnosis were collected for tissue microarray. The complete blood cou...
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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