Dopamine-Evoked Synaptic Regulation in the Nucleus Accumbens Requires Astrocyte Activity

Publication date: Available online 15 January 2020Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Michelle Corkrum, Ana Covelo, Justin Lines, Luigi Bellocchio, Marc Pisansky, Kelvin Loke, Ruth Quintana, Patrick E. Rothwell, Rafael Lujan, Giovanni Marsicano, Eduardo D. Martin, Mark J. Thomas, Paulo Kofuji, Alfonso AraqueSummaryDopamine is involved in physiological processes like learning and memory, motor control and reward, and pathological conditions such as Parkinson’s disease and addiction. In contrast to the extensive studies on neurons, astrocyte involvement in dopaminergic signaling remains largely unknown. Using transgenic mice, optogenetics, and pharmacogenetics, we studied the role of astrocytes on the dopaminergic system. We show that in freely behaving mice, astrocytes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key reward center in the brain, respond with Ca2+ elevations to synaptically released dopamine, a phenomenon enhanced by amphetamine. In brain slices, synaptically released dopamine increases astrocyte Ca2+, stimulates ATP/adenosine release, and depresses excitatory synaptic transmission through activation of presynaptic A1 receptors. Amphetamine depresses neurotransmission through stimulation of astrocytes and the consequent A1 receptor activation. Furthermore, astrocytes modulate the acute behavioral psychomotor effects of amphetamine. Therefore, astrocytes mediate the dopamine- and amphetamine-induced synaptic regulation, revealing a novel cellular pathway in the brain reward...
Source: Neuron - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: International Journal of PsychophysiologyAuthor(s): Hui Zhang, Yun Luo, Yufan Lan, Kiara BarrowAbstractThe aim of this study is to examine the association of the combined indices of respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest (basal RSA) and in response to a mental arithmetic task (RSA reactivity) to internet addiction. Participants included 99 young adults (61 men and 38 women) who reported on their levels of internet addiction. The results indicated that RSA reactivity moderated the association between basal RSA and self-reported internet addiction. This showcased that ...
Source: International Journal of Psychophysiology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
A small but effective team that is addressing the root causes of addiction at San Francisco ’s safety net hospital just got a $3 million donation from Kaiser Permanente.  Started one year ago with $900,0000 from Medicaid, the Addiction Care Team— comprised of just a half-time physician, full time patient navigator and a part time addiction fellow — coordinates care for patients at Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital who have a substance use disorder, the medical term for people who have…
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Number of higher training posts in England has fallen by 58% since 2011; some regions now don ’t have a single trainee Related items fromOnMedica Child mental health linked to families who struggle Mind reveals huge variation in STPs ’ mental health spend Health-focused line on drugs misuse would save lives and money Experts urge radical action on mental health crises Doctors urge government to act on rising alcohol impact
Source: OnMedica Latest News - Category: UK Health Source Type: news
ConclusionFor the first time, we could show that a larger oxytocin-induced attenuation of amygdala response to fearful faces is associated with lower subjective craving for alcohol and percentage of heavy drinking days in social drinkers. Modulation of amygdala activation, induced by emotional stimuli, might represent a neurobiological substrate of oxytocin ’s protective effects on drug seeking behavior.
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Smoking is a habit that is hard to break because nicotine is highly addictive and smoking behavior is strongly linked to multiple daily activities and routines. Here, we explored the effect of gender, age, day of the week, and previous smoking on the number of cigarettes smoked on any given day. Data consisted of daily records of the number of cigarettes participants smoked over an average period of 84 days. The sample included smokers (36 men and 26 women), aged between 18 and 26 years, who smoked at least five cigarettes a day and had smoked for at least 2 years. A panel data analysis was performed by way of multilevel p...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
A small but effective team that is addressing the root causes of addiction at San Francisco ’s safety net hospital just got a $3 million donation from Kaiser Permanente.  Started one year ago with $900,000 from Medicaid, the Addiction Care Team— comprising just a half-time physician, full time patient navigator and a part-time addiction fellow — coordinates care for patients at Zuc kerberg San Francisco General Hospital who have a substance use disorder, the medical term for people who have…
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines - Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Source Type: news
The President has proposed a $38.7 billion budget for the National Institutes of Health in fiscal year (FY) 2021. This translates to a $3 billion or 7 percent cut in the agency’s funding compared to FY 2020. The NIH budget request includes a $50 million initiative to use artificial intelligence (AI) to develop a better understanding of the causes of chronic diseases and to identify early treatments. This plan is in line with the Administration’s “Industries of the Future” effort, which supports using and developing AI across sectors. The budget would provide $50 million for the Childhood Cancer ...
Source: Public Policy Reports - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: news
Source: BMJ News - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Since we are living in a time of extremely high statistical occurrences of childhood anxiety, depression and even suicide (which is happening at even younger ages), we need to look at the causes that are behind these difficult challenges that children, teens and young adults are facing today. Whether it be parental influences, interactions with abusive outsiders, school bullying, or something else, mental illnesses are growing at a rampant rate.  When mental illness is not alleviated, it can create C-PTSD (compound or complex PTSD), so it’s critical to reverse it early. What sometimes keeps the underlying factor...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Children and Teens Parenting Trauma adverse childhood experiences Childhood Trauma Source Type: blogs
[SNA] El Fashir -The caretaker, Governor of North Darfur State , Maj. Gen. Malik Al- tayeb Khogali announced the establishment of the first integrated center for drug addiction treatment in El Fashir as the first integrated center in Darfur.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
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