Role of Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging in Differentiating Neuromyelitis Optica–Related and Multiple Sclerosis–Related Acute Optic Neuritis: Comparison With Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

Purpose The discrimination between neuromyelitis optica (NMO)– and multiple sclerosis (MS)–related acute optic neuritis (ON) after the first presentation is difficult in clinical practice. Through a comparison with diffusion-weighted imaging using readout-segmented echo-planar imaging (RESOLVE-DWI), our aim was to determine the feasibility of diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) for differential diagnosis. Materials and Methods Orbital DKI and RESOLVE-DWI in a 3.0-T scanner were performed on 37 patients with acute ON (15 NMO-related and 22 MS-related). The mean kurtosis (MK), axial kurtosis (AK), radial kurtosis (RK), mean diffusivity (MD), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated for quantitative analyses, and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were also performed to determine their abilities to differentiate the 2 conditions. Results The intraclass correlation coefficients among observers were 0.842, 0.885, 0.828, 0.871, and 0.942 for MK, RK, AK, MD, and ADC, respectively, in the affected nerve group and 0.890, 0.840, 0.832, 0.934, and 0.941 in the unaffected nerve group. Regarding the comparisons of the DKI and RESOLVE-DWI parameters among the groups, the mean MK, RK, AK, MD, and ADC values were significantly lower in the affected groups (all, P
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - Category: Radiology Tags: Neuroradiology Source Type: research

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