Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 104: An RNA Thermometer Activity of the West Nile Virus Genomic 3 ′-Terminal Stem-Loop Element Modulates Viral Replication Efficiency during Host Switching

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 104: An RNA Thermometer Activity of the West Nile Virus Genomic 3′-Terminal Stem-Loop Element Modulates Viral Replication Efficiency during Host Switching Viruses doi: 10.3390/v12010104 Authors: Alexandra Meyer Marie Freier Tobias Schmidt Katja Rostowski Juliane Zwoch Hauke Lilie Sven-Erik Behrens Susann Friedrich The 3′-terminal stem-loop (3′SL) of the RNA genome of the flavivirus West Nile (WNV) harbors, in its stem, one of the sequence elements that are required for genome cyclization. As cyclization is a prerequisite for the initiation of viral replication, the 3′SL was proposed to act as a replication silencer. The lower part of the 3′SL is metastable and confers a structural flexibility that may regulate the switch from the linear to the circular conformation of the viral RNA. In the human system, we previously demonstrated that a cellular RNA-binding protein, AUF1 p45, destabilizes the 3′SL, exposes the cyclization sequence, and thus promotes flaviviral genome cyclization and RNA replication. By investigating mutant RNAs with increased 3′SL stabilities, we showed the specific conformation of the metastable element to be a critical determinant of the helix-destabilizing RNA chaperone activity of AUF1 p45 and of the precision and efficiency of the AUF1 p45-supported initiation of RNA replication. Studies of stability-increasing mutant WNV replicons in human and...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research

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Conclusion: Almost all the women in our study showed serological evidence of Dengue immunity, suggesting that microcephaly can occur in DENV immune mothers. T cell immunity to Zika virus showed a multifunctional response to the antigens Env and NS1 and immune regulatory responses to NS5 and C protein. Our data support an argument that different viral products may skew the antiviral response to a more pro or anti-inflammatory outcome, with an associated impact on immunopathogenesis.
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWest Nile virus (WNV) emerged from Central Africa in the 1990s and is now endemic throughout much of the world. Twenty years after its introduction in the USA, it is becoming apparent that neurological impairments can persist for years following infection. Here, we review the epidemiological data in support of such long-term deficits and discuss possible mechanisms that drive these persistent manifestations.Recent FindingsFocusing on the recently discovered antimicrobial roles of amyloid and alpha-synuclein, we connect WNV late pathology to overlapping features encountered in neurodegenerative dise...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2020Source: Journal of BiotechnologyAuthor(s): S. Rizzo, P. Imperato, E. Mora-Cárdenas, S. Konstantinidou, P.A. Marcello, D. SblatteroAbstractWest Nile virus is a widespread mosquito-borne human and animal pathogenic virus of increasing importance. The E protein of the viral envelope is critical for attachment and entry into the host cell and has been the target for vaccine design and small molecule inhibitors. Furthermore, the detection of anti-E IgM and IgG antibodies is widely used in serology to diagnose these infections. Here we describe a strategy for the producti...
Source: Journal of Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
In this study, logistic mixed models were used to identify associations between the landscape, human population, and WNV-infected Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes during the 2012 WNV epidemic in Dallas Co. We found increased probabilities for WNV-positive mosquitoes in north and central Dallas Co. The most significant predictors of the presence of WNV in Cx. quinquefasciatus pools were increased urbanization (based on an index composed of greater population density, lower normalized difference vegetation index, higher coverage of urban land types, and more impervious surfaces), older human populations, and lower elevation...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
In this report, we describe a NS4B antibody against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) NS4B protein that cross-reacts with the NS4B protein of WNV but not of dengue virus (DENV). This JEV NS4B antibody not only recognizes WNV NS4B in infected cells, but also recognizes the NS4B protein expressed using transfection. It is evident from this data that the JEV NS4B antibody is specific to NS4B of WNV but not to NS4B of the four DENV serotypes. The specificity of this antibody may be due to the notable differences that exist between the amino acid sequence identity and antigenic relationships within the NS4B protein of the WNV, DENV, and JEV.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Opinion statementPurpose of reviewIn this review, we discuss current treatment options for commonly encountered neuromuscular disorders in intensive care units. We will discuss epidemiology, pathophysiology, and acute and chronic treatment options for myasthenia gravis, Guillain-Barr é syndrome, West Nile virus, Botulism, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.Recent findingsEculizumab is the newest immunomodulator therapy approved by the Food and Drug Administration in treatment of myasthenia gravis, shown to improve long-term functional outcomes. Edaravone is the newest therapy in management of amyotrophic lateral scle...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Hall Isberg Bielefeldt-Ohmann West Nile virus, Kunjin strain (WNVKUN) is endemic in Northern Australia, but rarely causes clinical disease in humans and horses. Recently, WNVKUN genomic material was detected in cutaneous lesions of farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus), but live virus could not be isolated, begging the question of the pathogenesis of these lesions. Crocodile hatchlings were experimentally infected with either 105 (n = 10) or 104 (n = 11) TCID50-doses of WNVKUN and each group co-housed with six uninfected hatchlings in a mosquito-free facility. Seven hatchlings were mock-infected and ho...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
rie Garigliany Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that shares many similarities with the closely related West Nile virus (WNV) in terms of ecology and clinical manifestations. Initially distributed in Africa, USUV emerged in Italy in 1996 and managed to co-circulate with WNV in many European countries in a similar mosquito–bird life cycle. The rapid geographic spread of USUV, the seasonal mass mortalities it causes in the European avifauna, and the increasing number of infections with neurological disease both in healthy and immunocompromised humans has stimulated interest in infection studies ...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Communication Source Type: research
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Source: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Source Type: research
This study aimed at (1) describing the local risk of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in humans based on previous case reports and (2) investigating the spatial clustering of cases in the five most affected administrative regions of Quebec, Canada, for the 2011-2016 period. METHODS: Human WNV cases declared to the Ministry of Health and Social Services of Quebec (Ministère de la santé et des services sociaux, MSSS) were retrieved. Incidence risk by age and sex was calculated for the study period. The yearly and monthly occurrence of cases in geographical units (GUs) was described and the probability ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Can J Public Health Source Type: research
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