Subcortical gray matter changes in pediatric patients with new-onset juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

The objective of the study was to identify the relationship between subcortical gray matter (GM) volumes and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). METHODS: We analyzed the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans that were performed during the time of the diagnosis of epilepsy by using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method. The volumetric three-dimensional sequence was used for structural investigation. The volumes of the thalamus, caudate nucleus, pallidum, and putamen were measured in both hemispheres of patients with JME, patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures alone (GTCS) (as a disease control group) and healthy controls (HCs). All patients were drug-naïve, and treatment had been started after evaluating MRI results. RESULTS: Fifteen patients with JME (9 females, mean age = 16.1 ± 3.2), 18 patients with GTCS (10 females, mean age = 15.5 ± 2.9), and 43 HCs (24 females, mean age = 15.9 ± 2.8) were included in the analysis. No significant difference was found for relative globus pallidus, caudate, and putamen volumes among the groups with JME, GTCS, and the HC group. The relative left and right thalamic volumes were significantly different between groups (Kruskal-Wallis rank test, p = 0.007, p = 0.001). In pairwise comparisons, both right and left relative thalamic volumes were lower in patients with JME than in HCs (right thalamus: means: 0.521 ± 0.066 vs. 0.597 ± 0.058, p 
Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Epilepsy Behav Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 21 February 2020Source: Biocybernetics and Biomedical EngineeringAuthor(s): Ashima Khosla, Padmavati Khandnor, Trilok ChandAbstractElectroencephalogram (EEG) measures the neuronal activities in the form of electric currents that are generated due to the synchronized activity by a group of specialized pyramidal cells inside the brain. The study presents a brief comparison of various functional neuroimaging techniques, revealing the excellent neuroimaging capabilities of EEG signals such as high temporal resolution, inexpensiveness, portability and non-invasiveness as compared to the other ...
Source: Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The literature describes abnormalities in cranial magnetic resonance imaging in 10-20% of diagnosed cases of PS in which a scan is performed, although the diagnosis of PS is not always changed (matching lesions). Both cases exemplify the importance of reaching a correct diagnosis through a detailed study that must include neuroimaging, since, in some patients, causal brain injuries will be detected and as a result the diagnosis, treatment and evolution will be significantly different. PMID: 32043535 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Revista de Neurologia - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Rev Neurol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: These findings reveal an increase in metabolism in the motor cortex during general cortical dysfunction in the frontal and occipital cortices in SHM. Key words: FDG-PET, hemiplegic migraine, migraine, positron emission tomography, SISCOM. PMID: 32002978 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica - Category: Neurology Tags: Acta Neurol Taiwan Source Type: research
The objective of the study was to identify the relationship between subcortical gray matter (GM) volumes and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME).MethodsWe analyzed the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans that were performed during the time of the diagnosis of epilepsy by using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method. The volumetric three-dimensional sequence was used for structural investigation. The volumes of the thalamus, caudate nucleus, pallidum, and putamen were measured in both hemispheres of patients with JME, patients with generalized tonic–clonic seizures alone (GTCS) (as a disease control group) and he...
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is a technique frequently used to determine the territories of eloquent tissue that serve critical functions, such as language. This can be particularly useful as part of the pre-surgical assessment for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in order to predict cognitive outcome and guide surgical decision-making. Whereas language fMRI is widely used, memory fMRI is less frequently employed in adult TLE, and lacking in childhood TLE. We have developed a combined language/memory fMRI paradigm that is suitable for children, to provide clinically useful information for surgical planning in p...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
AbstractPurposeThe aim of this study was to investigate if the etiologic classification of infantile spasm (IS) using positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MR) is feasible. Based on the classified etiologic groups, we further evaluated the efficacy of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy in different IS groups.Materials and methodsOne hundred fifty-five children diagnosed with IS were included in this study. A qualitative assessment of the PET/MR images was performed. The abnormal lesions localized with both MR and PET images were considered to be epileptic foci, and the patients with these les...
Source: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging - Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research
tilde;ez-Botella G, Arráez-Sánchez MÁ, Serrano-Castro PJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumours (DNET) are a type of benign glioneuronal neoplasia of typically temporal location that produce drug-resistant epileptic seizures in children and young adults. OBJECTIVE: This work aims to assess the usefulness of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the preoperative study in four patients with DNET. A Philips Intera 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner and the Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent (BOLD) technique were used to obtain the images, making it...
Source: Neurocirugia - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: Neurocirugia (Astur) Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 November 2019Source: Epilepsy &BehaviorAuthor(s): Kristie Bauman, Orrin Devinsky, Anli A. LiuAbstractCareful study of the clinical outcomes of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) surgery has greatly advanced our knowledge of the neuroanatomy of human memory. After early cases resulted in profound amnesia, the critical role of the hippocampus and associated medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures to declarative memory became evident. Surgical approaches quickly changed to become unilateral and later, to be more precise, potentially reducing cognitive morbidity. Neuropsychological studies foll...
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Careful study of the clinical outcomes of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) surgery has greatly advanced our knowledge of the neuroanatomy of human memory. After early cases resulted in profound amnesia, the critical role of the hippocampus and associated medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures to declarative memory became evident. Surgical approaches quickly changed to become unilateral and later, to be more precise, potentially reducing cognitive morbidity. Neuropsychological studies following unilateral temporal lobe resection (TLR) have challenged early models, which simplified the lateralization of verbal a...
Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Epilepsy Behav Source Type: research
Conclusion: The patient's psychiatric symptoms were most likely caused by anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Her polymorphic psychotic symptoms first occurred after she had received a Tdap-IPV booster vaccination. Although the vaccination cannot have caused the initial antibody formation since IgG serum antibodies were detected only 3 days after administration of the vaccine, the vaccine may have exerted immunomodulatory effects. MRI, EEG, and CSF findings were non-specific; however, FDG-PET identified brain involvement consistent with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. This case shows the importance of implementing a multimod...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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