Neuronal fibroblast growth factor 22 signaling during development, but not in adults, is involved in anhedonia

Growth factor signaling in the brain is implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, autism, and epilepsy. Fibroblast growth factor 22 is a growth factor that regulates excitatory synapse development and neurogenesis in the brain. We have previously shown that adult mice in which fibroblast growth factor 22 is constitutively inactivated in all cells throughout life (fibroblast growth factor 22-null mice) show anhedonia, a core feature of depression in humans, suggesting that fibroblast growth factor 22 signaling contributes to the regulation of affective behavior. Here we asked (1) whether inactivation of fibroblast growth factor 22 specifically in neurons is sufficient to induce anhedonia in mice and (2) whether fibroblast growth factor 22 signaling is important during development or in adults for the regulation of affective behavior. To address these questions, we performed the sucrose preference test, which is used as an indicator of anhedonia, with neuron-specific conditional fibroblast growth factor 22 knockout mice, in which fibroblast growth factor 22 is inactivated in neurons at birth (neonatal-fibroblast growth factor 22-knockout mice) or in adults (adult-fibroblast growth factor 22-knockout mice). We found that neonatal-fibroblast growth factor 22-knockout mice show anhedonia (decreased preference for sucrose), while adult-fibroblast growth factor 22-knockout mice do not. Therefore, neuronal fibroblast growth factor 22 signaling is critical d...
Source: NeuroReport - Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

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ConclusionsOur results indicate the prevalence of multiple comorbidities varies across the lifespan in DS, and in adults, rates for psychiatric comorbidities show different patterns for males and females relative to expected population rates. Further, most health comorbidities are not associated with poorer cognitive outcomes in DS, apart from autism and epilepsy. It is essential for clinicians to consider such differences to provide appropriate care and treatment for those with DS and to provide prognostic information relating to cognitive outcomes in those with comorbidities.
Source: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of reviewRepetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a form of noninvasive brain stimulation that is used for the treatment of migraine and major depression in adults and is now being evaluated for use in other disorders. The purpose of this review is to summarize the physiology underlying TMS, the safety and tolerability in pediatric patients, and the evidence for TMS efficacy in the treatment of pediatric neurologic disorders.Recent findingsStudies investigating rTMS for adolescent depression, hemiparesis due to pediatric stroke, autism, and tics/Tourette syndrome have demonstrated some therape...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
AbstractExposure to gestational stress is implicated in increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders in offspring. We assessed association between prenatal exposure to a 1-month period of repeated rocket attacks during the 2006 Second Lebanon War in Northern Israel and emergence of childhood neuropsychiatric disorders from birth through 9  years of age. Children born to women who were pregnant during the war (N = 6999) were identified and compared to children in the same district born a year later (N = 7054), whose mothers were not exposed to rocket attacks during pregnancy. Multivariable ...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Our world has never witnessed a time of greater promise for improving human health. Many of today’s health advances have stemmed from a long arc of discovery that begins with strong, steady support for basic science. In large part because of fundamental research funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which traces its roots to 1887, Americans are living longer, healthier lives. Life expectancy for a baby born in the U.S. has risen from 47 years in 1900 to more than 78 years today. Among the advances that have helped to make this possible are a 70% decline in the U.S. death rate from cardiovascular disease ...
Source: TIME: Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Healthcare medicine Source Type: news
This study comprehensively reviews brain-impaired patients: The studies involving patient populations and the diseases discussed in more than 10 works are included. Eleven diseases examined in this paper include autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, depressive disorders, anxiety and panic disorder, schizophrenia, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer ’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. For each disease, the tasks used for examination, fNIRS variables, and significant findings on the impairment are discussed. The channel configurations and t...
Source: Journal of Innovative Optical Health Sciences - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
__________ Industry review boards are needed to protect VR user privacy (World Economic Forum blog): “It seemed like a game when Riley first started the virtual reality (VR) maze … A month after playing the game, Riley was turned down for a new life-insurance policy. Given his excellent health, he couldn’t understand why. Several appeals later, the insurance company disclosed that Riley’s tracking data from the VR maze game revealed behavioral movement patterns often seen among people in the very early stages of dementia … This is a hypothetical situation, but the science of using movements ...
Source: SharpBrains - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Cognitive Neuroscience Health & Wellness Technology AR biometric Cognitive-tests dementia FDA institutional review boards insurance IRB movement patterns neurorehabilitation neurotechnologies Neurotechnology privacy virtual Source Type: blogs
 In this episode of Inside Schizophrenia, our hosts tackle the topic of early onset – or childhood – schizophrenia. Host Rachel Star discusses her personal experiences with schizophrenia symptoms as an adolescent and Dr. Joseph Gonzalez-Heydrich from Harvard Medical School discusses some of the latest research. Listen in now! About Our Guest Joseph Gonzalez-Heydrich, MD is Director of the Developmental Neuropsychiatry Clinic at Boston Children’s Hospital and an Associate Professor of Psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School. He did his undergraduate and medical school at Johns Hopkins, his residency t...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Disorders Inside Schizophrenia Psychiatry Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 22 June 2019Source: Seminars in Cell &Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Maude Bordeleau, Micaël Carrier, Giamal N. Luheshi, Marie-Ève TremblayAbstractIn addition to their traditional role as immune sentinels, recent discoveries over the last decade have shown that microglial functions now include regulation of neuronal/glial cell migration, differentiation and maturation, as well as neuronal network formation. It was thus proposed that disruption of these microglial roles, during critical periods of brain development, could lead to the pathological onset of several neurodeve...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: By paying special consideration to a Middle Eastern context, we aimed at illustrating the possibilities that TMS could bring for clinicians and patients in this nationally prioritized research field. PMID: 31173309 [PubMed - in process]
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
Conclusion: There may be an association between schizophrenia and HNPP. In observational studies, the deletion of interest (chromosome 17p12) was nearly 10 times more common in schizophreniform patients than in controls. This potential association could be pathophysiologically explained by the role of PMP22, which is mainly expressed in the peripheral nervous system. However, PMP22 mRNA and protein can also be found in the brain. PMP22 seems to play an important role in regulating cell growth and myelination, functions that are disturbed in schizophrenia. Such a connection obviously cannot be clarified on the basis of one ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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