Sympathetic Enhancement of Memory T Cell Homing and Hypertension Sensitization.

Conclusions: Sympathetic nerves contribute to the homing and survival of hypertension-specific TEM cells in the bone marrow after they are formed in hypertension. Inhibition of sympathetic nerve activity and β2AR blockade reduces these cells and prevents the blood pressure elevation and renal inflammation upon re-exposure to hypertension stimuli. PMID: 31928179 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Circulation Research - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Circ Res Source Type: research

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It has been 45 years since Gunther Schlager used a cross breeding program in mice to develop inbred strains with high, normal, and low blood pressure (BPH/2, BPN/3, and BPL/1 respectively). Thus, it is timely to gather together the studies that have characterized and explored the mechanisms associated with the hypertension to take stock of exactly what is known and what remains to be determined. Growing evidence supports the notion that the mechanism of hypertension in BPH/2 mice is predominantly neurogenic with some of the early studies showing aberrant brain noradrenaline levels in BPH/2 compared with BPN/3. Analysis of ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Karel Pacak Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors of the adrenal medulla and sympathetic/parasympathetic ganglion cells, respectively. Excessive release of catecholamines leads to episodic symptoms and signs of PPGL, which include hypertension, headache, palpitations, and diaphoresis. Intraoperatively, large amounts of catecholamines are released into the bloodstream through handling and manipulation of the tumor(s). In contrast, there could also be an abrupt decline in catecholamine levels after tumor resection. Because of such binary manifestations of PP...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Garrett M. Fogo, Dorela D. Shuboni-Mulligan, Andrew J. GallAbstractIntrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are critical for the light signaling properties of non-image forming vision. Melanopsin-expressing ipRGCs project to retinorecipient brain regions involved in modulating circadian rhythms. Melanopsin has been shown to play an important role in how animals respond to light, including photoentrainment, masking (i.e., acute behavioral responses to light), and the pupillary light reflex (PLR). Importantly, ipRGCs are resistan...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
This study also identified the cardiac myocyte as a significant local source of BDNF, as cardiac myocyte-specific deletion of BDNF induced a similar cardiomyopathy phenotype. While these results do not exclude a role for other neurotrophins, particularly in injury states, they point to the requirement for continued, local synthesis of BDNF to maintain optimal cardiac function. A major, unresolved question relates to how the truncated TrkB isoform (TrkBT1) transduces the inotropic effects of BDNF, which will require additional study. A concurrent study evaluated the potential impact of the BDNF-mediated activation of the k...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Sara AlMarabeh, Mohammed H. Abdulla and Ken D. O'Halloran* Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Renal sensory nerves are important in the regulation of body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and blood pressure. Activation of renal mechanoreceptor afferents triggers a negative feedback reno-renal reflex that leads to the inhibition of sympathetic nervous outflow. Conversely, activation of renal chemoreceptor afferents elicits reflex sympathoexcitation. Dysregulation of reno-renal reflexes by suppression of the inhibitory refle...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Background: The role of renal sympathetic nerve (RSN) in hypertension should be better understood. We aimed to three-dimensionally reconstruct the renal nerves, and explore its anatomical and histochemical characteristics in hypertensive canine model and patients. Methods: Renal arteries with surrounding tissue were collected from canines and cadavers with or without hypertension. Serial renal artery hematoxylin–eosin sections were used for three-dimensional reconstruction, and morphological parameters were collected and analyzed. Results: In hypertensive canines, the mean renal nerve number was 26.71 &plus...
Source: Journal of Hypertension - Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Autonomic nervous system Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 September 2018Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Xuan Sheng, Yu Dan, Bo Dai, Jingjing Guo, Huihong Ji, Xinge Zhang, Zhi Xie, Siqi Song, Qiwen Pan, Jiayue Wang, Shangdong Liang, Guilin LiAbstractDiabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy (DCAN) is a common and serious complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), is manifested by nerve fiber injury in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve of the autonomic nervous system, and causes hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, silent myocardial infarction, and sudden death. Our previous study observed that P2X3 receptor in superior cervical ga...
Source: Neurochemistry International - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Abstract Augmentation of cardiac sympathetic tone has been shown to induce ventricular arrhythmias. Acupuncture has been clinically used to treat hypertension, angina pectoris, and atrial arrhythmias. However, the effects of acupuncture on ventricular electrophysiology and autonomic tone remain unknown. We hypothesized that acupuncture attenuates cardiac excitability and corrects the imbalance of autonomic tone during sympathetic hyperactivity. Fourteen Yorkshire pigs were randomized to electroacupuncture (EA, 2 Hz, 0.3-0.5 mA, 0.5 ms duration) or control (without EA) groups. Animals were sedated with terazo...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Augmentation of cardiac sympathetic tone has been shown to induce ventricular arrhythmias. Acupuncture has been clinically used to treat hypertension, angina pectoris, and atrial arrhythmias. However, the effects of acupuncture on ventricular electrophysiology and autonomic tone remain unknown. We hypothesized that acupuncture attenuates cardiac excitability and corrects the imbalance of autonomic tone during sympathetic hyperactivity. Fourteen Yorkshire pigs were randomized to electroacupuncture (EA, 2  Hz, 0.3–0.5 mA, 0.5 ms duration) or control (without EA) groups.
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Source Type: research
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 29663677 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Anatomical Record - Category: Anatomy Authors: Tags: Anat Rec (Hoboken) Source Type: research
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