Metabolic syndrome: The Indian public health perspective

Publication date: Available online 13 January 2020Source: Medical Journal Armed Forces IndiaAuthor(s): Rajvir BhalwarAbstractMetabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a clustering of specific risk factors, namely, central obesity, raised blood pressure, impaired fasting glucose, raised triglycerides, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). This constellation is triggered by insulin resistance and its resultant hyperinsulinemia. The two most important and universally agreed causes of insulin resistance are increased body fat (particularly central obesity) and physical inactivity. Other causes include certain genetic/pro-genetic factors, unhealthy atherogenic diet, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol intake. Within 3 decades of the initial description of MetS by Reaven, various defining criteria have been developed by now, by leading international professional bodies, the most commonly used being the one given by the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) [NCEP-ATP-III], the updated guidelines recently released by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA). MetS has been well documented to increase the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) by two to three times and of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by five times. The world-wide prevalence is on the increase, with the overall global prevalence estimated to be 20%–25% of the adult population. In our country, v...
Source: Medical Journal Armed Forces India - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 26 February 2020Source: Speech CommunicationAuthor(s): Kumud Tripathi, M. Kiran Reddy, K. Sreenivasa Rao
Source: Speech Communication - Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research
Antipsychotic medications are a vital part of controlling psychosis in schizophrenic patients. However, when those patients live in nursing facilities, we are obligated by CMS to undertake gradual dose reductions of antipsychotic medication if possible. Sometimes, these efforts are successful and sometimes they fail. Antipsychotic medications have many side effects, including sedation, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, weight gain, motor rigidity, impaired gait, and falls. Monitoring of blood glucose, lipids, and extrapyramidal symptoms is mandatory.
Source: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association - Category: Health Management Authors: Source Type: research
Nutrition plays a vital role in the older adult, as weight in older adults is used as a marker of health and wellness. Individualization of meals is very limited; therefore, it is essential to offer a well-balanced diet options. In this regard, the national guidelines for the older adult can offer guidance to direct the meal options. There are national guidelines from the US Departments of Health and Human Services and Agriculture with dietary recommendations for community-dwelling healthy older adults.
Source: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association - Category: Health Management Authors: Source Type: research
Management of diabetes in post-acute settings needs special considerations. Hypoglycemia in the skilled nursing and rehabilitation facilities can lead to readmissions and complications including falls. Current EHR care-sets may not make a distinction between hospital and post-acute settings regarding diabetes management. The current diabetes management care-set in the EHR of our large healthcare system includes checking the blood sugar QID/AC/HS (before breakfast, lunch and dinner, and bedtime).
Source: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association - Category: Health Management Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: In the present systematic review and meta-analyses, varenicline was shown to reduce alcohol craving but not improve drinking-related outcomes in subjects with AUDs. PMID: 32097546 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: J Clin Psychiatry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 February 2020Source: Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental MutagenesisAuthor(s): Yu Gao, Ping Wang, Yinping Su, Zhaonan Wang, Lin Han, Jie Li, Yinghua Fu, Fengling Zhao, Quanfu Sun, Yumin Lyu
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS.: This study provided an atlas of genetic correlations between psychiatric disorders and plasma proteome, providing novel clues for pathogenetic and biomarkers, therapeutic studies of psychiatric disorders. PMID: 32093803 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Psychiatry Source Type: research
In conclusion, TSF improved lipid accumulation and hepatic steatosis by inducing the AMPK/SIRT1 pathway-mediated autophagy. Introduction Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a worldwide health concern due to the increased incidence of obesity and diabetes. In addition, NAFLD is closely associated with the risk factors of coronary heart disease, such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia, which are considered to be the leading causes of death (Wiest et al., 2017). Although our understanding of the pathogenesis of NAFLD has significantly improved, there is still no effective medica...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
In conclusion, FGF21 belongs to a promising class of cytokines that are induced in response to stress and that can be used as a drug, drug target, or through a biomarker, depending on the physio-pathological context. All these findings will become clear when FGF21 will be used as a therapeutic molecule, exploiting the beneficial effects of FGF21 for treating metabolic disease or when it will be blocked to ameliorate disease progression and the onset of disease. Author Contributions CT and MS wrote the manuscript. VR contributed to the discussion. Funding This work was supported from the AFM-Telethon (19524), Italian Mi...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Our study shows that a higher burden of liver steatosis seems to be associated with less severe stroke and better functional outcome after ischemic stroke or TIA. Introduction Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of diseases from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis with varying degree of fibrosis, and liver cirrhosis (1, 2). NAFLD is becoming the most common chronic liver disease worldwide including Korea, affecting approximately 25% of the general population (3, 4). NAFLD is closely associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and is even recognized as ...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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