Atherothrombosis Prevention and Treatment with Anti-interleukin-1 Agents

AbstractPurpose of ReviewDespite major advances in terms of prevention, diagnosis, risk-stratification, management and rehabilitation, atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis continue to have major morbidity and mortality implications worldwide. Since the unraveling of the pivotal role of inflammation in atherothrombosis pathophysiology, several focused treatments have been proposed with the ultimate goal of preventing or treating myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral artery disease. In particular, given the centrality of interleukin-1 (IL-1), targeted anti-IL-1 agents have attracted substantial attention and efforts. Yet, uncertainty persists on the real risk-benefit and cost-benefit balance of anti-IL-1 agents in patients with or at risk of atherothrombosis.Recent FindingsSeveral trials have been recently completed on atherothrombosis prevention and treatment with anti-IL-1 agents, ranging, for instance, from the large Canakinumab Antiinflammatory Thrombosis Outcome Study (CANTOS) trial to the series of translational studies conducted within the Virginia Commonwealth University-Anakinra Remodeling Trial (VCU-ART) platform. In light of the present scoping umbrella review, it appears evident that anti-IL-1 agents can reduce systemic inflammation and improve surrogate markers of cardiac and vascular function, with potential benefits on the risk of new/worsening heart failure. One trial suggested an increased risk of major adverse events with anti-interleukin-1 agents, pos...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

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Authors: Chionh CY, Clementi A, Poh CB, Finkelstein FO, Cruz DN Abstract Heart failure (HF) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Extracorporeal (EC) therapy, including ultrafiltration (UF) and haemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and peritoneal ultrafiltration (PUF) are potential therapeutic options in diuretic-resistant states. This systematic review assessed outcomes of PD and compared the effects of PD to EC. A comprehensive search of major databases from 1966 to 2017 for studies utilising PD (or PUF) in diuretic-resistant HF was conducted, excluding studies involving patients with end-stage kidn...
Source: Peritoneal Dialysis International - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Perit Dial Int Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe present study demonstrates that IPEE treatments can enhance cerebral ischemic tolerance by regulating the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway. The mechanisms of this response come in two primary forms: inhibiting MyD88 dependent pro-inflammatory pathways and activating TRIF dependent anti-inflammatory pathways.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Journal of Cardiology CasesAuthor(s): Chiaki Goten, Soichiro Usui, Takuto Hamaoka, Tomoya Harada, Oto Inoue, Hirofumi Okada, Shin-ichiro Takashima, Takeshi Kato, Hisayoshi Murai, Kenji Sakata, Hiroshi Furusho, Masa-aki Kawashiri, Masayuki TakamuraAbstractThe prognosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has significantly improved over the past two decades due to advances in medications, including pulmonary vasodilators. However, the side effects of these drugs remain problematic in some patients. A 51-year-old woman with chronic hepatitis C was diagnosed with ...
Source: Journal of Cardiology Cases - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
ConclusionThe final results of this study showed that there was no significant difference between the four study groups and arrhythmia status. Therefore, f-QRS was not introduced as an independent predictor of arrhythmia in patients with acute MI.
Source: Indian Heart Journal - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Canadian Journal of CardiologyAuthor(s): Hsin-Fu Lee, Yi-Hsin Chan, Pei-Ru Li, Jia-Rou Liu, Tze-Fan Chao, Lung-Sheng Wu, Shang-Hung Chang, Yung-Hsin Yeh, Chi-Tai Kuo, Lai-Chu See, Gregory Y.H. LipAbstractBackgroundEvidences of clinical outcomes for oral anticoagulants and antiplatelet treatment (APT) in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) are very limited.MethodsIn this nationwide retrospective cohort study collected from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 1,223 AF patients with CLI taking DOACs, warfarin, or APT wer...
Source: Canadian Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
This study sought to investigate what could be learned from how these men have fared. The men were born in 1925-1928 and similar health-related data from questionnaires, physical examination, and blood samples are available for all surveys. Survival curves over various variable strata were applied to evaluate the impact of individual risk factors and combinations of risk factors on all-cause deaths. At the end of 2018, 118 (16.0%) of the men had reached 90 years of age. Smoking in 1974 was the strongest single risk factor associated with survival, with observed percentages of men reaching 90 years being 26.3, 25.7, ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Giuseppe Ristagno1*, Francesca Fumagalli1, Barbara Bottazzi2, Alberto Mantovani2,3,4, Davide Olivari1, Deborah Novelli1 and Roberto Latini1 1Department of Cardiovascular Research, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research IRCCS, Milan, Italy 2Humanitas Clinical and Research Center-IRCCS, Milan, Italy 3Humanitas University, Milan, Italy 4The William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom The long pentraxin PTX3 is a member of the pentraxin family produced locally by stromal and myeloid cells in response to proinflammatory signals and microbial moieties. The p...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Abstract PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to report on the effect of using CHA2DS2VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years [doubled], type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus, stroke or transient ischemic attack or thromboembolism [doubled], vascular disease [prior myocardial infarction, peripheral artery disease, or aortic plaque], age 65-75 years, sex category [female]) rather than CHADS2 (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, and prior stroke) to determine candidacy for anticoagulant prophylaxis in insured patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). M...
Source: Clinical Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Clin Ther Source Type: research
The disease and cost burden of atrial fibrillation (AF) is expected to double over the next 25 years (1). With availability of newer therapies, efforts to refine the triage of who receives therapies, when, and for how long have assumed center stage. Over the last few years, a host of new scores such as CHADS-VASc (congestive heart failure [or Left ventricular systolic dysfunction], hypertension, age≥75 years, diabetes, prior Stroke, TIA, or thromboembolism, vascular disease [e.g. peripheral artery disease, myocardial infarction, aortic plaque], age 65–74 years, sex category) and ATRIA (Anticoagulation and Ris...
Source: Journal of the American College of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
The frequency with which clinicians encounter patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) and its association with ischemic stroke make estimation of the risk borne by individuals a daily issue in contemporary cardiology practice across the globe. In the balance lies the decision to employ long-term anticoagulation therapy with its attendant risk of severe bleeding. A variety of clinical risk scores are available to guide this decision, most prominently the CHA2DS2-VASc score, which cumulates the widely accepted, if unequally validated, clinical risk factors: heart failure (or impaired left ventricular function), hy...
Source: Journal of the American College of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
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