Knowledge restructuring through case processing: The key to generalise expertise development theory across domains?

Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Educational Research ReviewAuthor(s): Henny P.A. Boshuizen, Hans Gruber, Josef StrasserAbstractIn many domains evidence exists that expertise development goes along with the adaptation of cognitive structures and processes. Whilst it is generally assumed that expertise and its acquisition is domain-specific, there are nevertheless similarities across domains that may evoke comparable processes and lead to similar cognitive restructuring. The “Knowledge Restructuring through Case Processing” (KR-CP) theory is proposed as a domain-general framework that takes into account similarities and differences between domains in order to explain corresponding processes and performances of professionals in different domains. The KR-CP theory is based on the assumption that dealing with complex cases plays a major role in many professional domains and allows for cognitive adaptations to routine as well as novel situations. The focus of this review is to investigate the capacity of this assumption to explain expertise development in multiple domains. Starting from the domain of medicine, in which such outcomes have been extensively studied, three further domains are analysed. Evidence is reviewed from counselling and psychotherapy, business management, and law. Thereby specific methodological complications emerge concerning the criteria for expert selection, the definition of levels of expertise, or the degree of authenti...
Source: Educational Research Review - Category: Child Development Source Type: research

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Publication date: November 2020Source: The Arts in Psychotherapy, Volume 71Author(s): Angelle Cook
Source: Arts in Psychotherapy - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
AbstractLong has the standard of care for substance use disorder (SUD) been pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or rehabilitation with varying success. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) may have a beneficial reduction in the addiction-reward pathway. Recent studies have found reduced relapse and improvements in quality of life following DBS stimulation of the nucleus accumbens. We aim to identify positive outcomes and adverse effects to assess the viability of DBS as a treatment of addiction. A PubMed search following PRISMA guidelines was conducted to identify the entirety of reports reporting DBS as a treatment for SUD. Outcomes ...
Source: Neurosurgical Review - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research
Conditions:   Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic;   Substance Use Disorders Interventions:   Behavioral: Prolonged Exposure Therapy;   Behavioral: Cognitive Processing Therapy;   Behavioral: Present Centered Therapy Sponsors:   Center for Veterans Research and Education;   Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute;   Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Condition:   Postpartum Depression Intervention:   Behavioral: Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy Sponsors:   McMaster University;   Hamilton Academic Health Sciences Organization Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Condition:   Anxiety Depression Intervention:   Behavioral: Psychotherapy Sponsor:   NYU Langone Health Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Conditions:   Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic;   Substance Use Disorders Interventions:   Behavioral: Prolonged Exposure Therapy;   Behavioral: Cognitive Processing Therapy;   Behavioral: Present Centered Therapy Sponsors:   Center for Veterans Research and Education;   Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute;   Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Condition:   Postpartum Depression Intervention:   Behavioral: Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy Sponsors:   McMaster University;   Hamilton Academic Health Sciences Organization Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Condition:   Anxiety Depression Intervention:   Behavioral: Psychotherapy Sponsor:   NYU Langone Health Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Psychother Psychosom
Source: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
BackgroundDuring the COVID-19 pandemic, the Working Group “Prevention and Integrative Oncology” (PRIO) in the German Cancer Society has initiated flash interviews and surveys. One of these stated increasing rates of fears and mental stress of tumor patients. Now we aimed to analyze whether tumor patients did perceive changes in their attitudes and behaviors related to their relationships, awareness of nature and quietness, interest in spiritual issues, or feelings of worries and isolation. A further point of interest was how these perceived changes could be predicted, either by meaning in life, spirituality as ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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