CRISPR, Prime Editing, Optogenetics, and DREADDs: New Therapeutic Approaches Provided by Emerging Technologies in the Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury

AbstractSpinal cord injury (SCI) causes temporary disabilities or permanent effects including neuropathic pain and spastiscity. The damage often results frommechanical trauma, which in turn triggers the neuroinflammatory process. Neuroinflammation plays essential roles in the structural, biochemical, and cellular changes that take place in the spinal cord after the injury. Indeed, SCI activates many different signaling pathways that coordinate the resulting cellular responses. While neuroinflammation serves as a physiological reaction to harmful stimuli, it is clear that long-lasting inflammatory response leads to aggravation of the neurodegenerative processes, becoming detrimental to recovery post-injury. In this context, we present some possible therapeutic targets in these activated signaling pathways and provide new perspectives for SCI treatment based on recently developed technologies, including clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based methods (including prime editing), optogenetics, and designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). We critically analyze the recent advances in the deployment of these methods focusing on the control of the initial neuroinflammatory response. We then propose alternatives and provide new avenues for SCI treatment based on these emerging technologies.
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Authors: Sunna T, Elias E, Summaka M, Zein H, Elias C, Nasser Z Abstract BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a permanent disability which negatively affects individuals' health and particularly their quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of life (QoL) among Lebanese men with spinal cord injury and to compare it to a healthy control group. METHODS: A case control study was conducted. Fifty-one Lebanese patients with spinal cord injury and 51 age- sex-matched healthy persons were included in the study. RESULTS: Compared to healthy controls, the mean scores of eight domains of SF-36 were si...
Source: NeuroRehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: NeuroRehabilitation Source Type: research
Conclusion: Ecological momentary assessment can capture the dynamic nature of neuropathic pain experienced by persons with spinal cord injury. However, caution should be taken when designing intensive pain-related protocols to minimize pain exacerbation.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONNeuropathic pain affects up to 75% of people with spinal cord injury and is one of the most frequently occurring, debilitating forms of pain.Appropriate and feasible pain data collection methods are necessary to acquire a better understanding of how neuropathic pain manifests in people with spinal cord injury.Implementing ecological momentary ...
Source: Disability and Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Tags: Disabil Rehabil Source Type: research
This study protocol describes the process undertaken by the research team to design the methodology of this study.MethodsParticipants aged between 18 and 64 years, injured in a crash involving a motorised vehicle, will be recruited from public hospitals in Queensland. Participants will be excluded if their injuries are severe, including severe traumatic brain injury or spinal cord injury. Baseline data collection will occur within 28 days of the injury, with major follow up assessments occurring at 6 and 12 months post-baseline. Outcome measures include return to work status, health-related quality of life, musculoskeletal...
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a PLISSIT model sexual counseling to promote sexual function of women with spinal cord injury. In this randomized clinical trial the participants included a total number of 44 women with spinal cord injury randomly assigned to intervention and control groups using random blocking. The intervention group received the PLISSIT sexual counseling in three sessions weekly, and the control group received the routine consultation of the center. Female Sexual Functions of participants were assessed using women ’s Sexual Function Index questionnaires at three times. Two-way rep...
Source: Sexuality and Disability - Category: Disability Source Type: research
Authors: Bayoumi AB, Ikizgul O, Karaali CN, Bozkurt S, Konya D, Toktas ZO Abstract Antidepressant drugs can be advantageous in treating psychiatric and non-psychiatric illnesses, including spinal disorders. However, spine surgeons remain unfamiliar with the advantages and disadvantages of the use of antidepressant drugs as a part of the medical management of diseases of the spine. Our review article describes a systematic method using the PubMed/Medline database with a specific set of keywords to identify such benefits and drawbacks based on 17 original relevant articles published between January 2000 and February ...
Source: Asian Spine Journal - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Asian Spine J Source Type: research
Central neuropathic pain can be difficult to treat and, subsequently, cause a great amount of disability and distress to patients, which limits quality of life. Common etiologies include the following: stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, infection, vasculitis, and malignancy. This case is a description of an 18-yr-old male patient diagnosed with a grade IV diffuse glioma who experienced severe neuropathic pain refractory to first-line treatment options including the following: gabapentinoids, tricyclic antidepressants, and selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. The patient remained on high-...
Source: American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
ánchez As the leading causes of human disability and mortality, neurological diseases affect millions of people worldwide and are on the rise. Although the general roles of several signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders have so far been identified, the exact pathophysiology of neuronal disorders and their effective treatments have not yet been precisely elucidated. This requires multi-target treatments, which should simultaneously attenuate neuronal inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. In this regard, astaxanthin (AST) has gained growing interest as a multi-target pharmac...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Conclusions: PROMIS® instruments demonstrated measurement equivalence across interviewer-administered and self-administered conditions. These findings are particularly important for research or clinical applications where administration of PROMIS® measures by independent web- or tablet-based administration is not ideal, for example with individuals with physical or cognitive disabilities or with individuals who lack computer and/or Internet access. PROMIS® v1.0 Depression and PROMIS® v2.0 Emotional Support scores displayed a tendency toward social desirability that should be considered when these measures a...
Source: Health Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
Conclusion: These findings support the hypothesis that in FM a deteriorated function of cortical inhibition, indexed by a higher SICI parameter, a lower function of the DPMS, together with a higher level of BDNF indicate that FM has different pathological substrates from depression. They suggest that an up-regulation phenomenon of intracortical inhibitory networks associated with a disruption of the DPMS function occurs in FM. Introduction Major depressive disorder (MDD) and fibromyalgia (FM) present overlapped symptoms. Although the connection between these two disorders has not been elucidated yet, the disruption...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Conclusions: In vivo exposure to remifentanil exerts a beneficial effect against excitotoxicity on the developing mouse brain, which is associated with a reduction in the size of ibotenate-induced brain lesion as well as prevention of some behavioral deficits in young mice. The long-term effect of neonatal exposure to remifentanil should be investigated. Introduction The potential neurotoxicity of anesthetics in the perinatal period prompted the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to release a drug safety communication warning in 2016 that stated, “repeated or lengthy use of general anesthetics or sedation ...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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