Precision cut lung slices: a novel versatile tool to examine host –pathogen interaction in the chicken lung

AbstractThe avian respiratory tract is a common entry route for many pathogens and an important delivery route for vaccination in the poultry industry. Immune responses in the avian lung have mostly been studied in vivo due to the lack of robust, relevant in vitro and ex vivo models mimicking the microenvironment. Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) have the major advantages of maintaining the 3-dimensional architecture of the lung and includes heterogeneous cell populations. PCLS have been obtained from a number of mammalian species and from chicken embryos. However, as the embryonic lung is physiologically undifferentiated and immunologically immature, it is less suitable to examine complex host –pathogen interactions including antimicrobial responses. Here we prepared PCLS from immunologically mature chicken lungs, tested different culture conditions, and found that serum supplementation has a detrimental effect on the quality of PCLS. Viable cells in PCLS remained present for ≥ 40  days, as determined by viability assays and sustained motility of fluorescent mononuclear phagocytic cells. The PCLS were responsive to lipopolysaccharide stimulation, which induced the release of nitric oxide, IL-1β, type I interferons and IL-10. Mononuclear phagocytes within the tissue maintain ed phagocytic activity, with live cell imaging capturing interactions with latex beads and an avian pathogenicEscherichia coli strain. Finally, the PCLS were also shown to...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

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The highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV), H5N1 and reassortant H5-subtype HPAIVs, H5N2, H5N6, and H5N8, cause high mortality in domestic birds, resulting in economic losses in the poultry industry. H5N1 and H5N6 also pose significant public health risks and H5N1 viruses are a permanent pandemic threat. To control HPAIVs, eukaryotic expression systems have traditionally been exploited to produce vaccines based on hemagglutinin (HA), a protective viral antigen. In contrast, we used a bacterial expression system to produce vaccine targeting the HA protein. A fragment of the HA ectodomain from H5N1, with a multib...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
We describe the unexpected binding of S-layer to cells devoid of DC-SIGN but also confirm that the presence of DC-SIGN was essential for S-layer’s antiviral activity. S-layer protein exerted its antiviral effect with different kinetics than mannan, a known viral inhibitor that also acts on DC-SIGN (Yu et al., 2017). Together our results suggest that inhibition of viral entry by S-layer occurs via a novel S-layer/DC-SIGN interaction. Materials and Methods Isolation of S-Layer Proteins S-layer proteins were extracted from overnight cultures of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 cells grown in MRS medium at 37°C by using 6...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Jennifer M. Rudd1, Sivasami Pulavendran1, Harshini K. Ashar1, Jerry W. Ritchey1, Timothy A. Snider1, Jerry R. Malayer1, Montelongo Marie1, Vincent T. K. Chow2 and Teluguakula Narasaraju1* 1Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, United States2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore Exaggerated host innate immune responses have been implicated in severe influenza pneumonia. We have previously demonstrated that excessive neutrophils recruited during in...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 26 February 2019Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Mahmudul Hasan, ProggaParomita Ghosh, KaziFaizul Azim, Shamsunnahar Mukta, Ruhshan Ahmed Abir, Jannatun Nahar, Mohammad Mehedi Hasan KhanAbstractH7N9, a novel strain of avian origin influenza was the first recorded incidence where a human was transited by a N9 type influenza virus. Effective vaccination against influenza A (H7N9) is a major concern, since it has emerged as a life threatening viral pathogen. Here, an in silico reverse vaccinology strategy was adopted to design a unique chimeric subunit vaccine against avian influenza...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
In this study, we developed and tested a new HA quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a universal monoclonal antibody that can bind to HAs from various subtypes in group 1 influenza A virus (IAV). We analyzed the conserved stalk domain of HA via a library approach to design a consensus HA antigen for group 1 IAV. The antigens were expressed as a soluble form in E. coli and were purified by Ni-affinity chromatography. When tested with variety of HAs from IAVs or influenza B viruses (IBVs), the mAbs exhibited specific binding to group 1 HAs, with potential exception to H9 subtype. Among various conditi...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Influenza has been impacting public health on a global scale since the beginning of recorded history. Influenza, also known as the “flu,” has numerous organizations committed to public health research, developing vaccines, and educating on best practices to prepare for the upcoming flu season. By gaining an understanding of the flu through history, virology, and how it impacts our society, we can have a better appreciation for the commitment that’s involved with combating the flu. What Is Influenza (and What’s Not)? The eyes of an epidemiologist can twitch for a variety of reasons, one of them being...
Source: JEMS Special Topics - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Exclusive Articles Operations Source Type: news
This study was conducted on 100 one-day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effect of Poulvac E. coli vaccine in reduction of clinical signs and complications after concurrent infectious bronchitis virus (variant 02) and virulent E. coli O78 challenges. The birds were evaluated for clinical signs, mortality for 7 days post-infection, PM lesion score, average body weight and serological evaluation. Re-isolation and RT-PCR for the challenging infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) variant 02 were conducted thereafter. The results showed that the Poulvac E. coli at one-day old chicks in the presence of co-infection with virulent ...
Source: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
In conclusion, this outbreak investigation highlighted the importance of close collaboration between regional Public Health Services, the NVWA, the RIVM and diagnostic laboratories. Through a combined microbiological, epidemiological and source tracing approach, raw and undercooked beef products could be identified as the source of the S. Typhimurium outbreak. This outbreak yet again emphasizes the importance of awareness among consumers of the risk of infection when consuming or handling raw meat products. To increase transparency for consumers, we recommend adding warning labels to risk food products. Competing Intere...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog - Emergency medicine and critical care medical education blog aka Tropical Travel Trouble 009 The diagnosis of HIV is no longer fatal and the term AIDS is becoming less frequent. In many countries, people with HIV are living longer than those with diabetes. This post will hopefully teach the basics of a complex disease and demystify some of the potential diseases you need to consider in those who are severely immunosuppressed. While trying to be comprehensive this post can not be exhaustive (as you can imagine any patient with ...
Source: Life in the Fast Lane - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Clinical Cases Tropical Medicine AIDS art cryptococcoma cryptococcus HIV HIV1 HIV2 PEP PrEP TB toxoplasma tuberculoma Source Type: blogs
This study, for the first time, identified novel antigenic epitopes on the H5N1 HA2 subunit. Two epitopes, found in the HA2 ectodomain, have never been described for AIV infection in any animal species. Also one HA2 epitope was found to have high potential as a DIVA antigen.
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
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