Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease: common molecular traits beyond the amyloid precursor protein.

Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease: common molecular traits beyond the amyloid precursor protein. Aging (Albany NY). 2020 Jan 09;11: Authors: Gomez W, Morales R, Maracaja-Coutinho V, Parra V, Nassif M Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent type of dementia. Down syndrome (DS) is the leading genetic risk factor for Early-Onset AD, prematurely presenting the classic pathological features of the brain with AD. Augmented gene dosage, including the APP gene, could partially cause this predisposition. Recent works have revealed that alterations in chromosome location due to the extra Chromosome 21, as well as epigenetic modifications, could promote changes in gene expression other than those from Chromosome 21. As a result, similar pathological features and cellular dysfunctions in DS and AD, including impaired autophagy, lysosomal activity, and mitochondrial dysfunction, could be controlled beyond APP overexpression. In this review, we highlight some recent data regarding the origin of the shared features between DS and AD and explore the mechanisms concerning cognitive deficiencies in DS associated with dementia, which could shed some light into the search for new therapeutic targets for AD treatment. PMID: 31918411 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Aging - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Aging (Albany NY) Source Type: research

Related Links:

ConclusionsThe results demonstrate that even subtle changes in vessel morphology can be noninvasively quantified. This is of great interest for AD, but also to other models of neurodegenerative diseases involving macrovascular dysfunction.
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
AMPK is a key regulator at the molecular level for maintaining energy metabolism homeostasis. Mammalian AMPK is a heterotrimeric complex, and its catalytic α subunit exists in 2 isoforms: AMPKα1 and AMPKα2. Recent studies suggest a role of AMPKα overactivation in Alzheimer’s disease–associated (AD-associated) synaptic failure. However, whether AD-associated dementia can be improved by targeting AMPK remains unclear, and roles of AMPKα isoforms in AD pathophysiology are not understood. Here, we showed distinct disruption of hippocampal AMPKα isoform expression patterns in post...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: These results suggest the potentially increased association between benzodiazepine use and cognitive impairment or dementia in female and those with polypharmacy. Inconsistent safety profiles of benzodiazepine components should be further investigated. PMID: 32450620 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Psychiatry Investigation - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Psychiatry Investig Source Type: research
Source: Clinical Interventions in Aging - Category: Geriatrics Tags: Clinical Interventions in Aging Source Type: research
In this study, our previously proposed persistent features and various traditional graph-theoretical measures are used to quantify the topological property of white matter (WM) network in 150 subjects with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We found significant differences in these measures among AD, MCI, and normal controls (NC) under different brain parcellation schemes. The decreased network integration and increased network segregation are presented in AD and MCI. Moreover, the persistent homology-based measures demonstrated stronger statistical capability and robustness than traditional graph-theoretic measures, suggesti...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
DEMENTIA is a progressive brain condition that causes dramatic behavioural changes over time. The symptoms are often subtle at first and a common early warning sign is taking up particular pursuits.
Source: Daily Express - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Authors: Jones MT, Strassnig MT, Harvey PD Abstract INTRODUCTION: While antipsychotics have been generally successful in treating psychosis in schizophrenia, there is a major treatment gap for negative symptoms and cognitive deficits. Given that these aspects of the disease contribute to poor functional outcomes independently of positive symptoms, treatments would have profound implications for quality of life. The 5-HT2A- receptor has been considered a potential target for interventions aimed at negative and cognitive symptoms and multiple antagonists and inverse agonists of this receptor have been tested. ARE...
Source: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Emerg Drugs Source Type: research
Discussion A valid and reliable quantitative measure of relationship continuity/discontinuity will enable more robust evaluation of suggestions about this construct that have been made in qualitative studies (e.g. that discontinuity is associated with a greater sense of caregiver burden). PMID: 32447982 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Brain Injury - Category: Neurology Tags: Brain Inj Source Type: research
Two copies of the APOE4 variant, which confers a higher risk of dementia, doubles the risk of severe symptoms as a result of infection with SARS-CoV-2, according to a study.
Source: The Scientist - Category: Science Tags: News & Opinion Source Type: news
mTOR IN DOWN SYNDROME: ROLE in Aß and TAU NEUROPATHOLOGY and TRANSITION to ALZHEIMER DISEASE-LIKE DEMENTIA. Free Radic Biol Med. 2017 Aug 11;: Authors: Di Domenico F, Tramutola A, Foppoli C, Head E, Perluigi M, Butterfield DA Abstract The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine protein kinase involved in the regulation of protein synthesis and degradation, longevity and cytoskeletal formation. The mTOR pathway represents a key growth and survival pathway involved in several diseases such as cancer, obesity, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative diseases. Numerous studie...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research
More News: Alzheimer's | Biomedical Science | Brain | Dementia | Down's Syndrome | Genetics | Mitochondrial Disease | Neurology