The knowns and unknowns of West Nile virus in Europe: what did we learn from the 2018 outbreak?

The knowns and unknowns of West Nile virus in Europe: what did we learn from the 2018 outbreak? Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2020 Jan 08;: Authors: Camp JV, Nowotny N Abstract Introduction: West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne human and animal pathogen with nearly world-wide distribution. In Europe, the virus is endemic with seasonal regional outbreaks that have increased in frequency over the last 10 years. A massive outbreak occurred across southern and central Europe in 2018 with the number of confirmed human cases increasing up to 7.2-fold from the previous year, and expanding to include previously virus-free regions.Areas covered: This review focuses on potential causes that may explain the 2018 European WNV outbreak. We discuss the role genetic, ecological, and environmental aspects may have played in the increased activity during the 2018 transmission season, summarizing the latest epidemiological and virological publications.Expert opinion: Optimal environmental conditions, specifically increased temperature, were most likely responsible for the observed outbreak. Other factors cannot be ruled out due to limited available information, including factors which may influence host/vector abundance and contact. Europe will likely experience even larger-scale outbreaks in coming years. Increased surveillance efforts should be implemented with a focus on early-warning detection methods, and large scale host and vector surveys should continue to fill...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

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uppari Baldanti West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are two related arboviruses (genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae), with birds as a reservoir and mosquitoes as transmitting vectors. In recent years, WNV epidemiology changed in many European countries with increased frequency of outbreaks posing the issue of virus transmission risks by blood transfusion. USUV emerged for the first time in birds of the Tuscany region (Italy) in 1996 and in 2001 in Austria. While WNV is responsible for both mild and neuroinvasive diseases, USUV infection is usually asymptomatic and neuroinvasive symptoms are rare. Since ...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 December 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Michael W. Gaunt, Duane J. Gubler, John H.-O. Pettersson, Goro Kuno, Annelies Wilder-Smith, Xavier de Lamballerie, Ernest A. Gould, Andrew K. FalconarAbstractSporadic human Zika virus (ZIKV) infections have been recorded in Africa and Asia since the 1950s. Major epidemics occurred only after ZIKV emerged in the Pacific islands and spread to the Americas. Specific biological determinants of the explosive epidemic nature of ZIKV have not been identified. Phylogenetic studies revealed incongruence in ZIKV placement in relation to Aedes-bor...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Abstract Sporadic human Zika virus (ZIKV) infections have been recorded in Africa and Asia since the 1950s. Major epidemics occurred only after ZIKV emerged in the Pacific islands and spread to the Americas. Specific biological determinants of the explosive epidemic nature of ZIKV have not been identified. Phylogenetic studies revealed incongruence in ZIKV placement in relation to Aedes-borne dengue viruses (DENV) and Culex-borne flaviviruses. We hypothesized that this incongruence reflects interspecies recombination resulting in ZIKV evasion of cross-protective T-cell immunity. We investigated ZIKV phylogenetic i...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
This report showed the circulation, first molecular detection and sequencing of WNV lineage 1 in chickens in the north of Tunisia and highlights the use of poultry as a surveillance tool to detect WNV transmission in a peri-domestic area. PMID: 31647898 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
lmair Flaviviruses are the most medically relevant group of arboviruses causing a wide range of diseases in humans and are associated with high mortality and morbidity, as such posing a major health concern. Viruses belonging to this family can be endemic (e.g., dengue virus), but can also cause fulminant outbreaks (e.g., West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus and Zika virus). Intense research efforts in the past decades uncovered shared fundamental strategies used by flaviviruses to successfully replicate in their respective hosts. However, the distinct features contributing to the specific host and tissue tropi...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Publication date: May 2019Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Volume 26, Issue 3Author(s): Emmanuel A. BurdmannThe genus Flavivirus comprises approximately 73 viruses, which share several common aspects, such as dimension, structure, nucleic acid properties, and shape in electronic microscopy. Global incidence of flavivirus infection increased dramatically over the last decades, causing large outbreaks in several areas of the world. These viruses are expanding from endemic tropical and subtropical areas to previously nonendemic areas, affecting and causing diseases in millions of individuals worldwide and posing a ...
Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
Abstract Early warning systems to predict infectious disease outbreaks have been identified as a key adaptive response to climate change. Warming, climate variability and extreme weather events associated with climate change are expected to drive an increase in frequency and intensity of mosquito-borne disease (MBD) outbreaks globally. In Canada, this will mean an increased risk of endemic and emerging MBD outbreaks such as West Nile virus and other MBDs. The availability of timely information on the risk of impending MBD outbreaks has important public health implications, by allowing implementation of mosquito co...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research
Cloning, expression &evaluation of potential immunogenic recombinant capsid premembrane protein of West Nile virus. Indian J Med Res. 2019 May;149(5):656-661 Authors: Kumar JS, Rathinam S, Karothia D, Parida M Abstract Background &objectives: West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that has emerged globally as a significant cause of viral encephalitis. The early confirmatory diagnosis of WNV infections is important for timely clinical management and in areas where multiple flaviviruses are endemic. Diagnosis of WNV infection is primarily based on serodiagnosis, followed by virus isol...
Source: The Indian Journal of Medical Research - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Indian J Med Res Source Type: research
In this study, we exposed apically well-differentiated human NECs cultured at the ALI to the related flaviviruses ZIKV, JEV, WNV, and Usutu virus (USUV). We selected these viruses due to the recent increasing evidences of potential threat to humans (Cadar et al., 2017; Simonin et al., 2018). We show that NECs are particularly susceptible to JEV and WNV infection and to other flaviviruses included in this study. Infection with each virus led to shedding of infectious virus particles through the apical and basolateral surfaces and triggered host mechanisms at the level of inflammatory and antiviral mediators. Given...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated ATA as a potential antiviral drug against ZIKV replication. The antiviral activity of ATA against ZIKV replication in vitro showed median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 13.87 ± 1.09 μM and 33.33 ± 1.13 μM in Vero and A549 cells, respectively; without showing any cytotoxic effect in both cell lines (median cytotoxic concentration (CC50)> 1,000 μM). Moreover, ATA protected both cell types from ZIKV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) and apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, pre-treatment of Vero cells with ATA for up to 72 h also resulted...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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