Etiology, epidemiology, pathology, and advances in diagnosis, vaccine development, and treatment of Gallibacterium anatis infection in poultry: a review.

Etiology, epidemiology, pathology, and advances in diagnosis, vaccine development, and treatment of Gallibacterium anatis infection in poultry: a review. Vet Q. 2020 Jan 06;:1-32 Authors: Dharanesha NK, Dhama K, Mariappan AK, Munuswamy P, Mohd IY, Tiwari R, Karthik K, Bhatt P, Reddy MR Abstract Gallibacterium anatis is a Gram-negative bacterium of the Pasteurellaceae family that resides normally in the respiratory and reproductive tracts in poultry. It is a major cause of oophoritis, salpingitis, and peritonitis, decreases egg production and mortality in hens thereby severely affecting animal welfare and overall productivity by poultry industries across Europe, Asia, America, and Africa. In addition, it has the ability to infect wider host range including domesticated and free-ranging avian hosts as well as mammalian hosts such as cattle, pigs and human. Evaluating the common virulence factors including outer membrane vesicles, fimbriae, capsule, metalloproteases, biofilm formation, hemagglutinin, and determining novel factors such as the RTX-like toxin GtxA, elongation factor-Tu, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) has pathobiological, diagnostic, prophylactic, and therapeutic significance. Treating this bacterial pathogen with traditional antimicrobial drugs is discouraged owing to the emergence of widespread multidrug resistance, whereas the efficacy of preventing this disease by classical vaccines is limited due to i...
Source: Veterinary Quarterly - Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Vet Q Source Type: research

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Authors: Reissier S, Cattoir V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Streptogramins (pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin) can be interesting options for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive cocci, especially multidrug-resistant isolates. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an updated overview on structural and activity characteristics, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical use of streptogramins. EXPERT OPINION: The streptogramin antibiotics act by inhibition of the bacterial protein synthesis. They are composed of two chemically distinct compounds, namely typ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Emergency-use authorizations, a formerly obscure corner of regulatory law, have become a centerpiece of the government ’s response to the pandemic.
Source: NYT - Category: American Health Authors: Tags: your-feed-science Coronavirus Risks and Safety Concerns Food and Drug Administration Hahn, Stephen M (1960- ) Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Vaccination and Immunization Clinical Trials Drugs (Pharmaceuticals) your-feed-health your-feed-healthc Source Type: news
The use of an immune-system stimulant harvested from shark liver oil in the development of some coronavirus vaccines has animal conservationists pressing for alternatives.(Image credit: Reinhard Dirscherl/ullstein bild via Getty Images)
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Authors: Abdeta D, Kebede N, Giday M, Terefe G, Abay SM Abstract Microbial resistance to the few conventional antitrypanosomal drugs, increasing resistance of vectors to insecticides, lack of effective vaccines, and adverse effects of the existing antitrypanosomal drugs justify the urgent need for effective, tolerable, and affordable drugs. We assessed antitrypanosomal effects of the hydromethanolic extract of Echinops kebericho Mesfin roots against Trypanosoma congolense field isolate using in vitro and in vivo techniques. Parasite load, packed cell volume (PCV), body weight, and rectal temperature in Swiss albino...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Phoenix Children ’s Hospital held its fourth annual flu POD (point of distribution) this week, with this year's 13-hour blitz holding a special significance amid the global Covid-19 pandemic. On Oct. 7, nurses began vaccinating employees at 6 a.m. and concluded the one-day event at 7 p.m., vaccinating nearly 5,00 0 people. It’s preparation for another potential mass vaccination event: distribution of a safe and effective vaccine for Covid-19. Click through the photo gallery above to see scenes…
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Source Type: news
In this study, we modeled an alternative strategy to amplify tumor antigen-specific TCR transgenic CD8+ T cells through limited application of a long-acting IL-2 fusion protein, mIL-2/mCD25, which selectively targets the high-affinity IL-2R. Here, mice were vaccinated with a tumor antigen and high-dose mIL-2/mCD25 was applied to coincide with the induction of the high affinity IL-2R on tumor-specific T cells. A single high dose of mIL-2/mCD25, but not an equivalent amount of IL-2, amplified the frequency and function of tumor-reactive CD8+ T effector (Teff) and memory cells. These mIL-2/mCD25-dependent effects relied on di...
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study, we present a new method for the simultaneous detection of CXCR4, mesodermal markers and NCCs markers during chicken embryo developmental stages HH18 –HH25 by combining double whole-mount in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunostaining on floating vibratome sections. The simultaneous detection of CXCR4 and markers for the mesodermal and neural crest cells in multiple labelling allowed us to compare complex gene expression patterns and it could b e easily used for a wide range of gene expression pattern analyses of other chicken embryonic tissues. All steps of the procedure, including the preparation of p...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
According to officials, the Hyderabad-based vaccine maker applied to the Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) on October 2, seeking its permission to conduct phase-3 randomised double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre trial of its COVID-19 vaccine candidate.
Source: The Economic Times Healthcare and Biotech News - Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news
DiscussionThe results of this realist review will be written up according to RAMESES guidelines and disseminated through a stakeholder workshop in Malawi, through conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications. It is intended to improve the understanding of the potential and limits of working through Care Groups globally and among relevant Malawi Ministry of Health staff and the donor and NGO community, both internationally and within Malawi. This systematic review protocol has been submitted for registration on the PROSPERO database (receipt number: 170261).
Source: Systematic Reviews - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to produce a specific chicken egg yolk antibody and evaluate its protective response against a G. anatis infection model in 4-week-old chicks. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that hens immunized with the recombinant N terminus of Gallibacterium toxin A (GtxA-N) had significantly increased antibody titers against GtxA-N in serum and egg yolk IgY. Western blotting showed that IgY antibody had specificity against GtxA-N in the egg yolks of immunized hens. The growth of G. anatis in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and agar was significantly inhibited by the GtxA-N-specific IgY antibod...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Microbial Immunity and Vaccines Source Type: research
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