Receptor autoimmunity: diagnostic and therapeutic implications

AbstractReceptor autoimmunity is one of the ways in which autoimmune diseases appear in humans. Graves ’ disease, myasthenia gravis, idiopathic membranous nephropathy, and autoimmune acute encephalitis are the major autoimmune diseases belonging to this particular group. Receptor autoimmune disease are dependent on the presence of autoantibodies directed against cell-surface antigens, namely TSH re ceptor in thyrocytes, acetylcholine receptor in neuromuscular junction, phospholipase 2 receptor in podocytes, and NMDA receptor in cortical neurons. In this article we outline the distinctive features of receptor autoimmunity and the specific relationship between the autoimmunology laboratory and t he presence/concentration of autoantibodies. Some immunological features distinguish receptor autoimmunity. Anti-receptor autoantibody pathologies are considered T cell-dependent, B-cell-mediated autoimmune disorders: the knowledge about the presence of circulating and/or localized autoantibodies to target organs and identification of autoantigens involved in the autoimmune reaction is of paramount importance. Due to the close correlation between the concentration of anti-receptor autoantibodies, the autoimmune target of some cell-surface receptors and the intensity of symptoms, the measuremen t of these immunoglobulins has become central to diagnose autoimmune diseases in all affected patients, not just in clinically dubious cases. The measurement of autoantibodies is also releva...
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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ConclusionsMost patients have autoimmune or limbic encephalitis and corresponding abnormalities on neuroimaging. Other presentations include peripheral nerve hyperexcitability or Morvan syndromes, cerebellar syndromes, behavioral and cognitive changes, and more rarely movement disorders. The most commonly associated malignancy was thymoma and suggests a role for thymoma screening in CASPR2-related diseases.
Source: Journal of Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusions: One or more types of ADs developed in AE patients, and patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis had a higher frequency of autoimmune comorbidities than those with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. And we found that autoimmune comorbidities did not affect the clinical course of AE.
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Iris Lavon1,2†, Coral Heli1†, Livnat Brill1, Hanna Charbit1,2 and Adi Vaknin-Dembinsky1* 1Department of Neurology and Laboratory of Neuroimmunology, and the Agnes-Ginges Center for Neurogenetics, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel 2Leslie and Michael Gaffin Center for Neuro-Oncology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel Background: The clinical course of multiple sclerosis ranges from benign with little disease progression and minimal disability, to severe disease requiring intensive medical treatment. There are no reliable circulating biomarkers fo...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
We describe here a powerful method for identifying B cells that recognize membrane antigens expressed on cells. The technique depends on two characteristics of the interaction between a B cell and an antigen-expressing cell: antigen-receptor-mediated extraction of antigen from the membrane of the target cell, and B cell activation. We developed the method using influenza hemagglutinin as a model viral membrane antigen, and tested it using acetylcholine receptor (AChR) as a model membrane autoantigen. The technique involves co-culturing B cells with adherent, bioorthogonally labeled cells expressing GFP-tagged antigen, and ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
ConclusionThis patient likely has autoimmune encephalitis associated with elevated N-type calcium channel antibodies. This case highlights the clinical significance of N-type calcium channel antibodies and the importance of correctly diagnosing patients with antibody mediated disease that may very well mimic more common neurologic diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS).
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Rationale: Autoimmune encephalitis and Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome are classic paraneoplastic neurological conditions common in patients with small cell lung cancer. Patient concerns: The patient complained of tiredness, fluctuating recent memory loss, and inability to find his home. His family members reported a change in character, irritability, and paranoia. One month later, the patient had 1 grand mal seizure lasting 5 minutes. Diagnosis: The patient was diagnosed with limbic encephalitis combined with Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome. The gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABAB) receptor and coll...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: We summarize in this review recent advances in the field of intravenous immunoglobulins use in pediatric neurological diseases. Literature data supports a beneficial effect in this age group. Whilst awaiting the results of large scale studies, administration of intravenous immunoglobulins could be justified in refractory child epilepsy. Otherwise, its use should be guided by the individual needs of each child, depending on the underlying neurological disease. PMID: 28914199 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Epilepsy Curr - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research
Conclusions eNID will ultimately increase our understanding of the epidemiology, treatment, prognosis and impact of neuroimmunological diseases through collaborative international research, leading to better patient outcomes.
Source: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: Abstracts Source Type: research
Conclusions:Uncommon manifestations of VGCC antibodies include limbic encephalitis and what resembled progressive supranuclear palsy.Study Supported by: Not applicableDisclosure: Dr. Adair has nothing to disclose.
Source: Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: CNS Inflammatory Diseases and Differential Diagnosis II Source Type: research
Conclusions:VGKC antibodies are commonly tested but infrequently found. In half of positive cases, VGKC status was not related to final diagnoses. Limbic encephalitis was the most consistently associated syndrome. We did not find a correlation between the titre of VGKC antibodies and corresponding clinical diagnosis.Disclosure: Dr. Crotty has nothing to disclose. Dr. Vodopivec has nothing to disclose. Dr. Loomis has nothing to disclose. Dr. Baron has nothing to disclose. Dr. Cho has nothing to disclose. Dr. Bhattacharyya has received personal compensation for activities with Advance Medical.
Source: Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: CNS Inflammatory Diseases and Differential Diagnosis II Source Type: research
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