Insect predator odors protect herbivore from fungal infection

Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Biological ControlAuthor(s): Todd A. Ugine, Jennifer S. ThalerAbstractLethal predators and pathogens can reduce the size of pest populations and help regulate crop-damaging herbivores. Additionally, predators like the spined soldier bug (Podisus maculiventris) can elicit non-consumptive effects in herbivores such as the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), causing changes in prey behavior, physiology and life history. While it is known that lethal predators and pathogens interact, there is little known about the interaction of predator-induced non-consumptive effects and pathogens on their shared hosts. Using the spined soldier bug, which is known to elicit non-consumptive effects on potato beetles (e.g. reduced feeding), we studied the interaction of predator-induced non-consumptive effects and the fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana on the survival of Colorado potato beetle larvae. In laboratory microcosms we found a 16-50% increase in survival of fungus-treated beetles held with non-lethal male stink bugs. We also studied the predator-fungus interaction on jasmonic acid-treated plants to assess whether elevated levels of host plant defenses made larvae more susceptible to fungal infection. Beetles’ susceptibility to fungal infection did not change when provided jasmonic-acid treated foliage as food. Finally, we determined that two volatile compounds (E-2-hexenal and alpha-terpineol), produced as p...
Source: Biological Control - Category: Biology Source Type: research

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Authors: Díaz Alcázar MDM, Ruiz Escolano E, Casado Caballero FJ, Cervilla Sáez de Tejada E Abstract A 72-year-old female presented with abdominal pain and constipation and intestinal dilation was found. Abdominal computed tomography showed two areas of thickening and stenosis in the proximal jejunum and preterminal ileum, with an unknown etiology. Exploratory laparotomy was proposed but the patient suffered a sudden and progressive decrease in consciousness. Cranial computed tomography showed an ischemic area and a midline shift. Brain biopsies suggested infection by Aspergillus Fumigatus. Desp...
Source: Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Rev Esp Enferm Dig Source Type: research
Bacterial, viral, or overall infection was associated with increased Parkinson's disease risk.Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis C virus, Malassezia, and pneumoniae infection were positively associated with the risk of Parkinson's disease. However, infection of herpes virus, hepatitis B virus, pertussis, scarlet fever, mumps, chicken pox, influenza virus, measles, and German measles was not. AbstractAimsRecent studies showed that patients with various bacterial, viral, and fungal infections might be at increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the risk of PD in patients with each specific infection varied. This meta...
Source: Brain and Behavior - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
Conclusions: In this nationally representative administrative database, the most common identified pathogen was S. aureus in previously healthy and chronically ill children. In addition, a high proportion of children with sepsis and select chronic diseases had infections with methicillin-resistant S. aureus, fungal infections, Pseudomonas infections, and C. difficile. Clinicians caring for pediatric patients should consider coverage of these organisms when administering empiric antimicrobials for sepsis.
Source: Critical Care Medicine - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research
In conclusion, EBN Malaysia has a good nutritional profile, free of heavy metals, and an acceptable level of nitrate, nitrite, and microorganism profile except for mould contents. Furthermore, the in vitro study indicated that EBN was not associated with cancer cell growth. PMID: 32051689 [PubMed]
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: According to our experience, micafungin is an appropriate alternative for antifungal prophylaxis in patients undergoing an allo-HSCT, because its efficacy, its low profile of drug interactions and side-effects. PMID: 32056418 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Revista Espanola de Quimioterapia - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Rev Esp Quimioter Source Type: research
Abstract The garlic contains sulfur bioactive compounds responsible for medicinal properties. The decrease of these compounds due to inadequate storage conditions reduces the beneficial properties and favors infection by microorganisms. Several studies have shown high frequency of garlic infected with Aspergillus section Nigri that potentially produce mycotoxin. Garlic samples were collected in markets of Brazil and a total of 32 samples (of 36) had the fungal infection with predominant genus Aspergillus (50.3%), Penicillium (34.7%), and Fusarium (11%). A total of 63% (649/1031) of infection with Aspergillus secti...
Source: Current Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research
Authors: Supriyadi R, Darmawan G, Pranggono EH Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) remains a worldwide scourge and the most common cause of mortality from infectious disease. Around 95% of cases occur in developing country. Renal TB is a rare cases that complicates 3-4% of pulmonary TB patients and commonly overlooked in clinical practice due to its symptoms may mimic other diseases.A-39-year-old man was admitted to our institution due to flank pain. He had history of low grade fever and oligouria since 5 months prior. He had no complaint of cough, dyspnea, or night sweat. He was a non smoker and had no past medical history...
Source: Acta medica Indonesiana - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Acta Med Indones Source Type: research
Authors: Fávero MLD, Bonetti AF, Domingos EL, Tonin FS, Pontarolo R Abstract Toenail fungal infections account for half of all nail disease cases, and a highly negative impact on patient quality of life. Our aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of commercially available oral antifungals for onychomycosis. A systematic review was performed in PubMed and Scopus. Randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of oral antifungals on mycological cure, discontinuation and adverse events were included. Network meta-analyses were built for each outcome. Results were reported as odds ratios (OR) with 95% cr...
Source: Journal of Dermatological Treatment - Category: Dermatology Tags: J Dermatolog Treat Source Type: research
ConclusionIn combination with routine methods, our panfungal PCR assay is a valuable diagnostic tool. Patients at risk for invasive fungal infections might profit from the reduced time to pathogen identification.
Source: Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Conclusion Surgical endoscopic intervention is an option for definitive management of acute invasive skull base fungal rhinosinusitis; however, postoperative mortality and risk of recurrence requiring additional surgical interventions remains high. Patients with hematologic malignancy may be more susceptible to recurrent infection requiring multiple surgical debridements. We recommend early aggressive multimodal treatment. Multiple debridements may be warranted in most cases; close clinical surveillance is needed during neurosurgical intervention. [...] Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thie...
Source: Journal of Neurological Surgery Part B: Skull Base - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
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