Study reveals a new approach to enhancing response to immunotherapy in melanoma

(Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute) Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys have identified a new way to boost the immune system's ability to fight cancer. The study used a mouse model to identify the importance of the Siah2 protein in the control of immune cells called T regulatory cells (Tregs), which limit the effectiveness of currently used immunotherapies. The research, which offers a new avenue to pursue immunotherapy in cases where the treatment fails, was published today in Nature Communications.
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: news

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Conclusions Results demonstrate how immunotherapy can impact the QoL of both patients and carers, either directly through toxicities or indirectly through mechanisms such as stress, financial toxicity, or fatigue that limits participation in life activities. Implications for Practice Supportive care resources and interventions are needed for those receiving immunotherapy to minimise negative impacts on QoL. Carers likewise require better preparation and information to assist in identifying potential treatment toxicities and ensure patient safety.
Source: Cancer Nursing - Category: Nursing Tags: ARTICLES: ONLINE ONLY Source Type: research
Vitamin C (VitC) is known to directly impair cancer cell growth in preclinical models, but there is little clinical evidence on its antitumoral efficacy. In addition, whether and how VitC modulates anticancer immune responses is mostly unknown. Here, we show that a fully competent immune system is required to maximize the antiproliferative effect of VitC in breast, colorectal, melanoma, and pancreatic murine tumors. High-dose VitC modulates infiltration of the tumor microenvironment by cells of the immune system and delays cancer growth in a T cell–dependent manner. VitC not only enhances the cytotoxic activity of ad...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Phenotyping of immune cell subsets in clinical trials is limited to well-defined phenotypes, due to technological limitations of reporting flow cytometry multi-dimensional phenotyping data. We developed a multi-dimensional phenotyping analysis tool and applied it to detect nitric oxide (NO) levels in peripheral blood immune cells before and after adjuvant ipilimumab co-administration with a peptide vaccine in melanoma patients. We analyzed inhibitory and stimulatory markers for immune cell phenotypes that were felt to be important in the NO analysis. The pipeline allows visualization of immune cell phenotypes without knowl...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
New therapies are urgently needed in melanoma particularly in late-stage patients not responsive to immunotherapies and kinase inhibitors.
Source: Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Today, we are witnessing a revolution in the treatment of cancer through the use of immunotherapy. In the last decade, work from many laboratories and clinicians have unequivocally demonstrated that the immune system can eradicate established cancers and enhance patient survival. However, immunotherapies have distinct tumor response-to-toxicity profiles due to distinct mechanisms of action. We have previously termed immunotherapies that activate a general, systemic immune response as “enhancement cancer immunotherapy” and those that target a specific dysfunctional immune response, especially within the tumor mi...
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Perspective Source Type: research
This article focuses on the development of combined immune checkpoint inhibitors and describes how immunotherapy can be used to treat early stage cancer. DOI: 10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2020.02.05
Source: Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Current clinical evidence suggests that there is a large potential to enhance the abscopal effect when radiation therapy is combined with immunotherapeutic agents for the treatment of malignant melanoma. Ongoing and planned clinical trials may provide us with a more in-depth understanding of how this combination therapy can be optimally utilized clinically to achieve improved survival outcomes among patients with malignant melanoma. PMID: 32079015 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: 18 February 2020Source: Cell Reports, Volume 30, Issue 7Author(s): Christopher E. Rudd, Kittiphat Chanthong, Alison TaylorSummaryImmune checkpoint blockade using antibodies against negative co-receptors such as cytolytic T cell antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) has seen much success treating cancer. However, most patients are still not cured, underscoring the need for improved treatments and the possible development of small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) for improved immunotherapy. We previously showed that glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3α/β is a central regulator of PD-1...
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
anazi Garrett Melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer. Melanoma is usually curable with surgery if detected early, however, treatment options for patients with metastatic melanoma are limited and the five-year survival rate for metastatic melanoma had been 15–20% before the advent of immunotherapy. Treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors has increased long-term survival outcomes in patients with advanced melanoma to as high as 50% although individual response can vary greatly. A mutation within the MAPK pathway leads to uncontrollable growth and ultimately develops into cancer. The most common ...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
This study aimed at investigating the value of applying positron emission tomography (PET) to early predict the effect of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in malignant tumors.MethodsElectronic databases MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched to identify relevant trials. The primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The results were analyzed utilizing SPSS 19.0 statistical software. Subgroup analyses were implemented based on primary  tumors, study designs, continents, type of ICIs, evaluation index of PET, and evaluated PET timing.ResultsFifteen studi...
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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