Antibodies gather and form a circle for defensive attack

(National Institutes of Natural Sciences) Antibodies play a crucial role in our immune system by linking antigen recognition with complement activation for attacking foreign cells. Using high-speed atomic force microscopy, collaborative groups, including researchers at National Institutes of Natural Sciences and Nagoya City University, have successfully visualized the dynamic process of antigen-mediated interplay between antibodies and a complement component on membranes. Their findings provide mechanistic insights into the molecular processes behind Guillain-Barr é syndrome.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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AbstractThe discriminative value of CSF total protein (CSF-TP) in subtypes of Guillain –Barré syndrome has not been well documented in North-American patients. We reviewed 173 cases from a single institution, comprising the following clinical categories of neuropathy: 134 Sensorimotor (SM) GBS, 13 Motor (M) GBS, 8 Localized (L) GBS, and 18 Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS). We grouped t he electrophysiological interpretation in primarily demyelinating, primarily axonal and normal / equivocal categories. Mean CSF-TP were substantially higher for SM and L-GBS, as well as cases classified as Acute-onset chronic inflam...
Source: Journal of Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionsWhen considering a second course of IVIG treatment, serum albumin levels may be considered a biomarker as part of the decision algorithm.
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Abstract The post-malaria neurological syndrome (PMNS) is an unusual and relatively underreported complication of malaria, which usually occurs after the resolution of acute febrile illness and the patient is free from parasitemia. The clinical spectrum of the PMNS varies from acute-onset cerebellar ataxia to significant encephalopathy with focal deficits resembling acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Uncommon presentations of PMNS include Guillain-Barre syndrome, postural tremor, or even isolated neuropsychiatric features. Although in a significant proportion of PMNS cases clinical resolution occurs with conser...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Opinion statementPurpose of reviewIn this review, we discuss current treatment options for commonly encountered neuromuscular disorders in intensive care units. We will discuss epidemiology, pathophysiology, and acute and chronic treatment options for myasthenia gravis, Guillain-Barr é syndrome, West Nile virus, Botulism, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.Recent findingsEculizumab is the newest immunomodulator therapy approved by the Food and Drug Administration in treatment of myasthenia gravis, shown to improve long-term functional outcomes. Edaravone is the newest therapy in management of amyotrophic lateral scle...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Guillain-Barr é syndrome (GBS) was first described in detail by Georges Guillain (1876-1961), Jean Alexandre Barré (1880-1967) et André Strohl (1887-1977) in two soldiers during the first World War (October 13th, 1916) [1]. This disease is now known as ‘Guillain-Barré syndrome’. However, other cases were described clinically and/or pathologically before 1916. It is generally accepted that Octave Landry (1826-1865) was the first to describe the entity that he called “paralysie ascendante aiguë” (‘acute ascending paralysis’, AAP, also known as ‘Landry...
Source: Neuromuscular Disorders - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
An Oculopharyngeal Subtype of Guillain-Barré Syndrome Sparing the Trochlear and Abducens Nerves. Intern Med. 2020 Feb 05;: Authors: Arakawa M, Yamazaki M, Toda Y, Ozawa A, Kimura K Abstract Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) comprises a group of polyneuropathies characterized by rapid progression of limb paralysis. Various subtypes of GBS have been reported. The oculopharyngeal subtype of GBS is currently understood to be primarily a cranial polyneuropathy without limb weakness or cerebellar ataxia. In our case of 62-year-old man, gastrointestinal infection was followed by paranesthesia of the...
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
Palatal myoclonus can be primary or secondary. In primary palatal myoclonus, no obvious structural brain lesions can be found within the triangle of Guillain and Mollaret. Common causes of secondary myoclonus include stroke, demyelination, infections, trauma, and neurodegeneration. AbstractPalatal myoclonus can be primary or secondary. In primary palatal myoclonus, no obvious structural brain lesions can be found within the triangle of Guillain and Mollaret. Common causes of secondary myoclonus include stroke, demyelination, infections, trauma, and neurodegeneration.
Source: Clinical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: CLINICAL VIDEO Source Type: research
To examine epidemiological aspects of pediatric Guillain-Barr é syndrome (GBS) over the past 30 years in a Northern European country, including diagnostic validity, incidence, risk factors, and initial clinical characteristics.
Source: Pediatric Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
This article reviews basic pathophysiologic concepts regarding autonomic hyperactivity, its various forms of clinical presentation, and practical management considerations. RECENT FINDINGS Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity is most common after traumatic brain injury but can also occur after other forms of severe acute diffuse or multifocal brain injury. Formal criteria for the diagnosis and severity grading of paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity have now been proposed. A growing body of literature is beginning to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this disorder, but treatment remains based on observational data. Ou...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research
Source: Neurocritical Care - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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