Recombinant Adiponectin Peptide Ameliorates Brain Injury Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage by Suppressing Astrocyte-Derived Inflammation via the Inhibition of Drp1-Mediated Mitochondrial Fission

In conclusion, we propose APNp as a potential therapeutic agent for ICH. We provide the first mechanistic evidence that APNp can modulate Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission, which then contributes to alleviating astrocyte-derived inflammation.
Source: Translational Stroke Research - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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AbstractSpreading depolarization is observed as a large negative shift of the direct current potential, swelling of neuronal somas, and dendritic beading in the brain ’s gray matter and represents a state of a potentially reversible mass injury. Its hallmark is the abrupt, massive ion translocation between intraneuronal and extracellular compartment that causes water uptake (= cytotoxic edema) and massive glutamate release. Dependent on the tissue’s energy st atus, spreading depolarization can co-occur with different depression or silencing patterns of spontaneous activity. In adequately supplied tissue, spread...
Source: AGE - Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research
We examined human lung tissue from COPD patients and normal control subjects, and found a substantial increase in p16-expressing alveolar cells in COPD patients. Using a transgenic mouse deficient for p16, we demonstrated that lungs of mice lacking p16 were structurally and functionally resistant to CS-induced emphysema due to activation of IGF1/Akt regenerative and protective signaling. Fat Tissue Surrounds Skeletal Muscle to Accelerate Atrophy in Aging and Obesity https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2019/09/fat-tissue-surrounds-skeletal-muscle-to-accelerate-atrophy-in-aging-and-obesity/ Researchers her...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Conclusion The impact of sepsis on the gut is manifold, e.g., sepsis mediated alteration of the gut-blood barrier and increase in the intestinal permeability, which may correlate with the phenomena of bacterial translocation and lymphatic activation (“toxic-lymph”). Systemic consequences of sepsis are widespread and concern to the coagulative system, the microbiome as well as enzymes, such as pancreatic proteases, MMPs and IAPs. Nevertheless, the therapeutic approaches for modulating the mucosal immune system are still rarely effective in daily routine. Recent published studies showing that treatment with FMT,...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions In recent years, there have been many advances in the understanding of the molecular basis for vascular involvement in APS, but many areas need to be further investigated, in particular the association between altered genetic/epigenetic profiles, autoantibodies and clinical manifestations, and the effectiveness of new therapeutic strategies. It would be interesting to apply next generation sequencing technologies like RNA-Seq along with GWAS to screen both, the gene profile and the whole transcriptome of large cohorts of primary APS patients, in order to reveal the mutations/polymorphisms, post-transcriptiona...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions Stroke comprises ischemic stroke and ICH. The immuno-inflammatory process is involved in neural plasticity following events such as a hemorrhage or ischemic stroke. After ischemia, astrocytes, microglia, and MDMs play important roles during rehabilitation with the modulation of cytokines or chemokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1. Moreover, MiRNAs are also important posttranscriptional regulators in these glial mitochondrial responses to cerebral ischemia. ICH involves processes similar and different to those seen in ischemia, including neuronal injury, astrocytic and microglial/macrophage activation, and neu...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
This study investigated the proinflammatory effect and underlying mechanism of extracellular Prx1 in cultured murine macrophages and a collagenase-induced mouse ICH model. The current results show that incubation of exogenous Prx1 (0-50nM) with murine RAW264.7 macrophages resulted in increased expression of TLR4, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 and production of proinflammatory mediators (NO, TNF-a and IL-6) in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, ICH induced murine neurological deficits, cerebral edema and neuropathological alterations, such as neuron injury, astrocyte and micr...
Source: International Immunopharmacology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Int Immunopharmacol Source Type: research
Pretreatment of Mouse Neural Stem Cells with Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecule-2 Interferes with NF-κB p65 Signaling and Suppresses Iron Overload-Induced Apoptosis. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2016 Mar 10; Authors: Xie Z, Han P, Cui Z, Wang B, Zhong Z, Sun Y, Yang G, Sun Q, Bian L Abstract Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation is a promising approach to repair the damaged brain after hemorrhagic stroke; however, it is largely limited by the poor survival of donor cells. Breakdown products of the hematoma and subsequent iron overload contribute to the impairment of survival of neural cells. There is li...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 29 December 2015 Source:Progress in Neurobiology Author(s): Zhenxing Liang, Guiling Wu, Chongxi Fan, Jing Xu, Shuai Jiang, Xiaolong Yan, Shouyin Di, Zhiqiang Ma, Wei Hu, Yang Yang Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) comprise a family of cytoplasmic transcription factors that mediate intracellular signaling. This signaling is typically generated at cell surface receptors, the activation of which results in the translocation of STATs to the nucleus. STATs are involved in biological events as diverse as embryonic development, programmed cell death, organoge...
Source: Progress in Neurobiology - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Conclusions— DRD2 may have anti-inflammatory effects after ICH. DRD2 agonists inhibited neuroinflammation and attenuated brain injury after ICH, which is probably mediated by CRYAB and enhanced cytoplasmic binding activity with NF-B.
Source: Stroke - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Animal models of human disease, Neuroprotectors Basic Sciences Source Type: research
Conclusions— Norrin protected blood–brain barrier integrity and improved neurological outcome after SAH, and the action of Norrin appeared mediated by Frizzled-4 receptor activation, which promoted β-catenin nuclear translocation, which then enhanced Occludin, VE-Cadherin, and ZO-1 expression. Norrin might have potential to protect blood–brain barrier after SAH.
Source: Stroke - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Animal models of human disease, Cerebral Aneurysm, AVM, & Subarachnoid hemorrhage, Neuroprotectors, Other Stroke Treatment - Medical, Other Vascular biology Basic Sciences Source Type: research
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