Time for a paradigm shift in treating type 1 diabetes mellitus: coupling inflammation to islet Regeneration

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that targets the destruction of islet beta-cells resulting in insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia and death if untreated. Despite advances in medical devices and longer-acting insulin, there is still no robust therapy to substitute and protect beta-cells that are lost in T1DM. Attempts to refrain from the autoimmune attack have failed to achieve glycemic control in patients highlighting the necessity for a paradigm shift in T1DM treatment. Paradoxically, beta-cells are present in T1DM patients indicating a disturbed equilibrium between the immune attack and beta-cell regeneration reminiscent of unresolved wound healing that under normal circumstances progression towards an anti-inflammatory milieu promotes regeneration.
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: In cSLE, PA is associated with more hospitalizations and aggressive immunotherapy use. Although lupus disease activity improved over time, patients' QoL neither improved over time nor differed by having other autoimmune disease. Prospective, case-control, long-term follow-up studies on cSLE are needed to validate our results. MESH KEY INDEXING TERMS: Pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus; Autoimmune diseases; Outcome assessment. PMID: 33016198 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Lupus - Category: Rheumatology Authors: Tags: Lupus Source Type: research
Authors: Zaremehrjardi F, Baniadam L, Seif F, Arshi S, Bemanian MH, Shokri S, Rezaeifar A, Fallahpour M, Nabavi M Abstract Increased susceptibility to autoimmunity, malignancy, and allergy in addition to recurrent infections are the main characteristics suggesting for the primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). CTLA-4 is predominantly expressed on activated and regulatory T-cells, which can bind to CD80/CD86 molecules on antigen-presenting cells as a negative regulator. Here, we describe a 24-year-old male born from consanguineous parents with heterozygous CTLA-4 mutation who presented with multiple autoimmune dis...
Source: Iranian Journal of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Iran J Immunol Source Type: research
Solving the Puzzle of Immune Tolerance for β-Cell Replacement Therapy for Type 1 Diabetes. Cell Stem Cell. 2020 Oct 01;27(4):505-507 Authors: Bluestone JA, Tang Q Abstract Type 1 diabetes mellitus results from autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells. Insulin treatment is often inadequate in preventing devastating complications. Replacing β cells using stem cell-derived islets while fostering immune tolerance, exemplified in Yoshihara et al., holds the promise of a curative therapy for this disease. PMID: 33007232 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Cell Stem Cell - Category: Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Cell Stem Cell Source Type: research
In conclusion, children and adolescents with ITP present high frequency of latent and overt polyautoimmunity even for autoantibodies other than ANA. Therefore, ANA and other non–organ-specific and organ-specific autoantibodies should be considered for assessment during ITP patients’ follow-up.
Source: Journal of Pediatric Hematology Oncology - Category: Hematology Tags: Online Articles: Original Articles Source Type: research
Abstract AIMS: Latent autoimmune diabetes in adult (LADA), classified as between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, has received widespread attention. A number of studies have investigated the association between HLA DQA-DQB, DRB-DQB haplotypes and the onset of LADA. However, the conclusions remained inconsistent. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the impact of these HLA haplotypes on the pathogenesis of LADA. METHODS: Systematic searches were carried out on the Medline, PubMed, Embase and Wan Fang respectively to investigate the association of LADA with HLA DQA-DQB, DRB-DQB up to June 05, 2020. We perf...
Source: Gene - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Gene Source Type: research
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease characterized by loss of insulin producing beta cells and reliance on exogenous insulin for survival.
Source: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Source Type: research
Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and Receptor for Advanced Glycation end Products Gene Expression and Protein Levels in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2020 Sep 17;: Authors: Ninić A, Bojanin D, Sopić M, Mihajlović M, Munjas J, Milenković T, Stefanović A, Vekić J, Spasojević-Kalimanovska V Abstract OBJECTIVES: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is one of the most frequent autoimmune diseases in childhood. Chronic complications are the main causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in T1D. Although interactions between advanced glycation end products...
Source: JCRPE Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Tags: J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Our study suggested CYP27B1 polymorphisms rs10877012 minor allele A and rs4646536 minor allele C were negatively related to susceptibilities of organ-specific autoimmune endocrine diseases. PMID: 32915988 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: J Clin Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research
Abstract Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) exhibits 'molecular mimicry' with the human host resulting in several autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Crohn's disease (CD), etc. The conventional therapy for autoimmune diseases includes immunosuppressants or immunomodulators that treat the symptoms rather than the etiology and/or causative mechanism(s). Eliminating MAP-the etiopathological agent might be a better strategy to treat MAP-associated autoimmune diseases. In this case study, we conducted a systematic in silico analysi...
Source: Briefings in Bioinformatics - Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Tags: Brief Bioinform Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The patients of one major component of APS-2 should be screened for other components of the disease to pick up latent cases. Addison's disease should be ruled out in patients of hypothyroidism who are intolerant to levothyroxine. PMID: 32851966 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Drug Safety - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Drug Saf Source Type: research
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