Time for a paradigm shift in treating type 1 diabetes mellitus: coupling inflammation to islet Regeneration

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that targets the destruction of islet beta-cells resulting in insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia and death if untreated. Despite advances in medical devices and longer-acting insulin, there is still no robust therapy to substitute and protect beta-cells that are lost in T1DM. Attempts to refrain from the autoimmune attack have failed to achieve glycemic control in patients highlighting the necessity for a paradigm shift in T1DM treatment. Paradoxically, beta-cells are present in T1DM patients indicating a disturbed equilibrium between the immune attack and beta-cell regeneration reminiscent of unresolved wound healing that under normal circumstances progression towards an anti-inflammatory milieu promotes regeneration.
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research

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This article examines the current state of the art, in particular summarizes data on the role of polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor genes in a number of autoimmune endocrine diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus, Graves' disease and Hashimoto's autoimmune thyroiditis. The search for relevant scientific data was carried out by entering search queries based on keywords: TLR, SNP, autoimmunity, Graves' disease, Type 1 diabetes mellitus, Hashimoto's autoimmune thyroiditis. The search was conducted through PubMed, MEDLINE, Elsevier journals, Science Direct and Russian Index of Scientific Citation, as well as other highl...
Source: Autoimmunity Reviews - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
e;zquiz Aguirre S, Sánchez Landa E Abstract INTRODUCTION: whether hypovitaminosis D is an overarching cause of increased mortality or a prognostic marker of poor health has not been well elucidated. OBJECTIVES: we sought to determine the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH)-D3] levels with the clinical biochemical parameters and mortality risk in chronic diseases. METHODS: we reviewed the clinical charts and collected the clinical biochemical parameters of patients diagnosed with chronic conditions who had at least one 25-(OH)-D3 determination, with or without calcium and vitamin D su...
Source: Nutricion Hospitalaria - Category: Nutrition Authors: Tags: Nutr Hosp Source Type: research
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Source: Acta Biochim Pol - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Acta Biochim Pol Source Type: research
Authors: Umnyakova ES, Zharkova MS, Berlov MN, Shamova OV, Kokryakov VN Abstract Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were firstly discovered as cytotoxic substances that killed bacteria. Later they were described as biologically active peptides that are able not only to kill invaders but also to modulate host immunity. In particular, it is shown that human antimicrobial peptides are able to influence the activity of different innate and adaptive immunity components, thus, obviously, they also participate in autoimmune processes. In this review we discuss the nature of human AMPs and analyze their role in such autoimmune ...
Source: Autoimmunity - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research
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Source: International Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: research
Immunotherapy has transformed the treatment landscape for a wide range of human cancers. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), monoclonal antibodies that block the immune-regulatory “checkpoint” receptors CTLA-4, PD-1, or its ligand PD-L1, can produce durable responses in some patients. However, coupled with their success, these treatments commonly evoke a wide range of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) that can affect any organ system and can be treatment-limiting and life-threatening, such as diabetic ketoacidosis, which appears to be more frequent than initially described. The majority of irAEs from check...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: Seizure - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Conclusion: Patients with type 1 DM should be examined for thyroid diseases, and patients with suspected thyroid disease should be evaluated with a thyroid ultrasound. Type 1 DM and PTC coexistence albeit very rare; It should be known that type 1 diabetes can be seen together with thyroid cancer. PMID: 31686641 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Diabetes Reviews - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Curr Diabetes Rev Source Type: research
Conclusion: Pancreatic atrophy may be more common among children with DM, suggesting more advanced exocrine disease. However, data in this exploratory cohort also suggest increased autoimmunity and hypertriglyceridemia in children with DM, suggesting that risk factors for type 1 and type 2 DM, respectively may play a role in mediating DM development in children with pancreatitis.
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Article: Pancreatology Source Type: research
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