Time to dissect the autoimmune etiology of cancer antibody immunotherapy

Immunotherapy has transformed the treatment landscape for a wide range of human cancers. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), monoclonal antibodies that block the immune-regulatory “checkpoint” receptors CTLA-4, PD-1, or its ligand PD-L1, can produce durable responses in some patients. However, coupled with their success, these treatments commonly evoke a wide range of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) that can affect any organ system and can be treatment-limiting and life-threatening, such as diabetic ketoacidosis, which appears to be more frequent than initially described. The majority of irAEs from checkpoint blockade involve either barrier tissues (e.g., gastrointestinal mucosa or skin) or endocrine organs, although any organ system can be affected. Often, irAEs resemble spontaneous autoimmune diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune thyroid disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D), and autoimmune pancreatitis. Yet whether similar molecular or pathologic mechanisms underlie these apparent autoimmune adverse events and classical autoimmune diseases is presently unknown. Interestingly, evidence links HLA alleles associated with high risk for autoimmune disease with ICI-induced T1D and colitis. Understanding the genetic risks and immunologic mechanisms driving ICI-mediated inflammatory toxicities may not only identify therapeutic targets useful for managing irAEs, but may also provide new insights into the pathoetiology and treatment of autoimm...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: Based on these results, 8.1% of Mexican general population without a history of liver disease is at high risk of having advanced liver fibrosis and complications and death derived from cardiovascular disease and cirrhosis. Most of them showed normal ALT serum levels. PMID: 32063504 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Annals of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Ann Hepatol Source Type: research
Authors: Meunier L, Larrey D Abstract Some drugs may induce hepatotoxic lesions, such as steatosis or steatohepatitis found in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Among these drugs there are some anti-tumoral molecules, such as methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan, tamoxifen and l-asparaginase. The hepatotoxic phenotype developed from treatment with such drugs is known as "CASH" for "Chemotherapy-induced Acute Steatohepatitis". The mechanism of toxicity is essentially based on mitochondrial toxicity. These lesions are chronic and often reversible when the treatment is stopped. Contrib...
Source: Annals of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Ann Hepatol Source Type: research
Conclusions: LLH of the rectum with persistent symptoms or the endoscopic appearance of the nodular or SMT-like type may lead to clinically significant disease. Risk stratification according to endoscopic findings and careful surveillance are required for these lesions. PMID: 32062874 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Gut and Liver - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Gut Liver Source Type: research
The objective of this research article was to assess the trend of hospitalization, epidemiological characteristics and economic burden in the young adult, aged 18–45 years, presenting with atrial fibrillation.MethodsHospitalization data from the National Inpatient Sample between 2005 and 2015 were used to analyze prevalence of risk factors and financial burden in young adults with atrial fibrillation.ResultsFrom 2005 to 2015, a total of 260,080 admissions were included in the study. From 2005 to 2015, there was a decreasing trend of total admissions with atrial fibrillation among the age group of 18–45 years co...
Source: Heart and Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
The publisher regrets that the author information was incorrect in the footnote. This has been corrected for the online version. The correct information is “Worapol Ngamcherdtrakul, PhD, is a scientist at PDX Pharmaceuticals. Dr. Ngamcherdtrakul's research is focused on developing nanoparticles for cancer-targeted co-delivery of drug and siRNA and developing topical formulations of a nanotechnology for skin diseases. He also leads the cancer immunoth erapy program at PDX Pharmaceuticals”.
Source: Translational Research - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Erratum Source Type: research
Treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is complex, and there is limited consensus on the optimal nonsurgical management strategy. This is further complicated by new technologies and locoregional therapies (LRTs) that continue to evolve over time. Several medical specialists are involved in HCC diagnosis and treatment, and treatment strategies are often dictated by consulting physicians ’ specialties, rather than by evidence-based consensus. The most recent National Comprehensive Cancer Network Clinical Practice Guidelines recommend ablation approaches for tumors 5 cm in size (1).
Source: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology : JVIR - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
Gena Cook learned to swim three months before competing in her first triathlon. She was 40. Not only did she not drown, she finished in the top five in her age group. “It is an example of the challenges I have sought to stretch me, that helped me take the biggest risk of all in starting Navigating Cancer,” she said. “I left behind all the comforts of a secure, well-paying job for the simple reason that I wanted to improve patient care for cancer patients. ” Navigating Cancer, which Cook…
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines - Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Source Type: news
Conclusion CAS in maintenance hemodialysis patients may be feasible and effective for the prevention of stroke with proper case selection, appropriate technique and strict perioperative management. The most common causes of death during the follow-up of maintenance hemodialysis patients were diseases other than stroke. PMID: 32062623 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 February 2020Source: European Journal of Obstetrics &Gynecology and Reproductive BiologyAuthor(s): Gulim Murzakanova, Sari Räisänen, Anne Flem Jacobsen, Kristina Baker Sole, Lisa Bjarkø, Katariina LaineAbstractObjectiveTo assess the prevalence and risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in early-term (37+0–38+6 weeks), full-term (39+0–40+6 weeks), late-term (41+0–41+6 weeks), and post-term (>42+0 weeks) deliveries with spontaneous labor onset.Study designA population-based cohort with data from the Medical Birth Registry Norway (MBRN) and Statistics...
Source: European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
No abstract available
Source: Clinical Nurse Specialist - Category: Nursing Tags: DEPARTMENTS: Cochrane Nursing Care Corner Source Type: research
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