Current advances on the microbiome and role of probiotics in upper airways disease

We present here the studies on the nasal microbiota in healthy infants, allergic rhinitis, and CRS. The results demonstrate that there are stable and unstable profiles of microbiota during infancy. Decreased diversity or an imbalance of the microbial composition could be an important factor in the development of both allergic rhinitis and CRS. We also discuss here several recent animal and human studies that demonstrate the effect of probiotics in allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis. Results from human studies (clinical trials) have demonstrated that probiotics may be effective for allergic rhinitis, but there are no consistent results in human CRS trials. Summary Several strains of probiotics revealed potential efficacy for allergic rhinitis but not for CRS. Large clinical trials are essential to establish robust data on probiotics for chronic inflammatory upper airways diseases like allergic rhinitis and CRS.
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: RHINITIS, SINUSITIS AND UPPER AIRWAY DISEASE: Edited by Ruby Pawankar and David P. Skoner Source Type: research

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Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common medical problem, frequently seen by those in primary care, allergy, and otolaryngology. Our understanding of chronic sinusitis is continuously evolving, with some recent substantial advancements in the knowledge of the pathophysiology of CRS and new treatment options. For example, there is a greater understanding of how the environment, through allergic rhinitis, air pollution, and the patient ’s own microbiome, may play a role in the development of CRS. The recognition of CRS as an inflammatory disease state has been further refined, but trying to define the disease in terms ...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Preface Source Type: research
We examined the impact of mepolizumab on clinically significant exacerbations and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma and upper respiratory comorbidities.
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOccupational rhinitis (OR), an inflammatory disease of the nose, refers to any nasal symptoms reported to be work-related. The purpose of this review is to provide a current overview of the classification, diagnosis, and treatment of OR.Recent FindingsOccupational rhinitis (OR) can further be  classified into allergic or non-allergic depending on the causative agent(s) and pathogenesis. Presenting symptoms are similar to non-OR including nasal congestion, anterior and posterior rhinorrhea, sneezing, and nasal itching. Despite its high prevalence in a spectrum of workplaces, OR is under reporte...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Allergic rhinitis is common comorbidity of asthma that interrelated to asthma control. Identifiable allergens could be detected AR in asthma by SPT. Therefore, reduction of allergens exposure could become preventive approach for asthma patients with AR.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Allergy and immunology Source Type: research
Patients with asthma often experience nasal symptoms, from comorbid allergic rhinitis and sinusitis to nasal polyposis. We evaluated reductions in nasal symptoms as a function of baseline blood eosinophil counts (BEC) for patients in a Phase IIb study of benralizumab.
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsSM are a  common sensitization in the study population and should be included in standard skin prick test arrays. Cross sensitization to house dust mites is limited and nasal symptoms are most frequent. Nasal provocation testing is necessary to secure clinical diagnosis of allergy and further research is ne eded to evaluate the clinical relevance of the high sensitization rates found for intradermal testing.
Source: Allergo Journal International - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
The Journal of Allergy was launched in November 1929. The inaugural issue had 6 original articles covering asthma, ragweed pollen, bacterial allergy, a case report, sinusitis, and classification of specific sensitivities. The first editorial emphasized that the  Journal “has been launched as a medium for the presentation of papers concerning the clinical aspects of specific hypersensitivities in human beings.”1 Twenty years later, an editorial celebrating that anniversary stated, “A new era in allergy is coming into being, due to the ‘rediscover y’ that human hypersensitiveness ...
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
ConclusionSex, CF ‐related diabetes, sinonasal infection status, allergic rhinitis, and nasal steroid use may all modulate severity of CF‐CRS in adults. Sinusitis exacerbation may be a precursor to pulmonary exacerbation.
Source: International Forum of Allergy and Rhinology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is correlated with the development of persistent severe inflammatory disease of the upper airway including chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). The presence ofS. aureus is associated with atopic disease including allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis and is associated with poor outcomes.Recent FindingsSeveral different strains ofS. aureus generate different toxins and gene products that can account for organism pathogenicity.S. aureus bacteria and its antigens shape the bacterial and fungal microbiome and the mucosal niche which generates host respo...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
, Kirdar S, Karul A Abstract The effects of comorbidities on systemic inflammation markers in stable asthmatics and the consequences of such effects have not been well evaluated. We aimed to evaluate the effect of comorbidities on clinical manifestations and systemic inflammation in asthmatic patients under control. The study group consisted of asthmatic patients who applied to our pulmonology outpatient clinic and volunteered to participate. 120 clinically stable asthma patients (71 females and 49 males) and 35 healthy controls (19 females and 16 males) with similar age, gender, and body mass index distributions ...
Source: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol Source Type: research
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