Immunologic detection of Lyme disease and the related borrelioses

Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019Source: Methods in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Charles S. PaviaAbstractLyme disease and the relapsing fever borrelioses are caused by spirochetal bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia. They have a partially restricted worldwide distribution depending upon their species. They are transmitted to people following exposure to the following arthropod vectors: ticks (for Lyme disease and endemic relapsing fever) and lice (for epidemic relapsing fever). Soon after a cutaneous infection becomes established, these spirochetes disseminate via the haematogenous route and are capable of causing multi-system disturbances that can vary in their degree of morbidity. Unlike most bacteria, the Borrelia are somewhat difficult to culture, which often makes isolating them from a patient specimen for diagnostic purposes a generally low-yield procedure. They stain poorly or cannot be stained at all by the gram stain technique, but they can be readily visualized using Wright's or Giemsa stain. Various laboratory-based detection systems are available to the healthcare community for diagnostic purposes, and many of them are immunologically based, relying heavily on serologic techniques. These tests are well described in this chapter, along with an in-depth analysis of their advantages and potential pitfalls. For Lyme disease, serologic techniques have proven to be indispensable for confirming or to rule out the diagnosis especially in troublesome cases...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: Molecular Phylogenetics and EvolutionAuthor(s): Deng-Feng Xie, Yan Yu, Jun Wen, Jiao Huang, Jun-Pei Chen, Juan Li, Song-Dong Zhou, Xing-Jin HeAbstractAllium L. is one of the largest monocotyledonous genera with an extensive distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. The fundamental phylogenies of Allium have been investigated using many morphological and molecular characters. However, the morphological characters may not agree with the molecular results in some Allium groups or sections (such as the Chinese Allium section Daghestanica), which may result in ambiguous s...
Source: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Companies aim to have vaccine in production within 16 weeks before entering testing stageThere are no vaccines or treatments approved for the new coronavirus, but the race is on to develop one.This week the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (Cepi)announced it would commit $11m ( £8.4m) to three programmes led by the companies Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Moderna and the University of Queensland.Continue reading...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Coronavirus outbreak Science China World news Asia Pacific Medical research Vaccines and immunisation Health Source Type: news
What is a coronavirus? Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. Why are they called coronaviruses? The name derives from the fact that the viral capsule has a “halo” or “crown” surrounding it. What do coronaviruses do? In humans, the virus infects the airways giving rise to flu-like symptoms, a runny nose, cough, sore throat and fever, these are usually mild, but in rare cases can be lethal. Is there a vaccine against coronaviruses? No. Are there any drugs to block or treat infection? No. When were coronaviruses first discovered? In the 1960s ...
Source: David Bradley Sciencebase - Songs, Snaps, Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Sciencebase Source Type: blogs
Shanghai Disneyland and other tourist sites across the country plan to shut down, and the youngest victim so far has been identified as a 36-year-old man.
Source: NYT Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Deaths (Fatalities) Epidemics Lunar New Year China Wuhan (China) Source Type: news
Experts say wildlife sold for human consumption raises risk of new epidemicsWild animal markets must be banned worldwide, say experts in and outside China, warning that the sale of sometimes endangered species for human consumption is the cause both of the new coronavirus outbreak and other past epidemics.The Huanan seafood market in Wuhan, which has been closed down as the source of the infection, had a wild animal section, where live and slaughtered species were on sale. An inventory list at the Da Zhong domestic and wild animals shop inside the market includes live wolf pups, golden cicadas, scorpions, bamboo rats, squi...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Coronavirus outbreak Wildlife Food security Environment Global development Society Animals China Asia Pacific Science World news Health Infectious diseases Source Type: news
A respiratory virus has spread from China to a half-dozen other countries, including the U.S. Here ’s what you need to know.
Source: NYT Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Epidemics Respiratory Diseases World Health Organization China Wuhan (China) Snohomish County (Wash) United States Source Type: news
BCG vaccination is an important global health measure in countries with endemic tuberculosis but poses significant risks when administered to patients with Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (SCID) or genetic defects associated with Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Diseases (MSMD). A study by Marciano et al. reported that BCG-osis occurred in over 50% of BCG-vaccinated patients with SCID. The impact of this infection on allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) outcomes is unclear.
Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 529 Source Type: research
Chinese citizens are overcoming a lack of reporting on the crisis in the state-run media by sharing their own videos and information about the coronavirus outbreak.
Source: NYT Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Hospitals Social Media Rumors and Misinformation Epidemics Censorship Twitter Wuhan (China) Source Type: news
We report the case of a 20-year-old male from the department of Amazonas who presented with nine days of disease characterized by multiorgan failure (neurological, renal, hepatic, respiratory, and hematological involvement). He received antibiotic treatment, as well as, transfusion, dialysis, hemodynamic, and ventilatory support. Despite the severity of the clinical condition, he evolved favorably. YF was confirmed by Rt-PCR and positive serology was obtained for leptospira by ELISA and microagglutination. However, from a laboratory point of view, real co-infection by yellow fever and leptospira could not be demonstrated. ...
Source: Revista Peruana de Medicina de Experimental y Salud Publica - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica Source Type: research
Editor's note: This story is available as a result of a content partnership with the Financial Times. Subscribers will see stories like this every day on our website (and in our daily emails) as an added value to your subscription. US pharmaceutical executives have been put on notice that they could be held criminally liable for fuelling America’s epidemic of opioid addiction, after the founder of the drugmaker Insys was sentenced on Thursday to five-and-a-half years in prison for masterminding…
Source: Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Source Type: news
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