Prenatal intermittent hypoxia sensitizes the laryngeal chemoreflex, blocks serotoninergic shortening of the reflex, and reduces 5-HT3 receptor binding in the NTS in anesthetized rat pups.

Prenatal intermittent hypoxia sensitizes the laryngeal chemoreflex, blocks serotoninergic shortening of the reflex, and reduces 5-HT3 receptor binding in the NTS in anesthetized rat pups. Exp Neurol. 2019 Dec 27;:113166 Authors: Donnelly WT, Haynes RL, Commons KG, Erickson D, Panzini CM, Xia L, Han QJ, Leiter JC Abstract We tested the hypothesis that exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH) during pregnancy would prolong the laryngeal chemoreflex (LCR) and diminish the capacity of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) to terminate the LCR. Prenatal exposure to IH was associated with significant prolongation of the LCR in younger, anesthetized, postnatal day (P) rat pups age P8 to P16 compared to control, room air (RA)-exposed rat pups of the same age. Serotonin microinjected into the NTS shortened the LCR in rat pups exposed to RA during gestation, but 5-HT failed to shorten the LCR in rat pups exposed to prenatal IH. Given these observations, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal hypoxia would decrease binding to 5-HT3 receptors in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) where 5-HT acts to shorten the LCR. Serotonin 3 receptor binding was reduced in younger rat pups exposed to IH compared to control, RA-exposed rat pups in the age range P8 to P12. Serotonin 3 receptor binding was similar in older animals (P18-P24) regardless of gas exposure during gestation. The failure of the 5-HT injected into the NTS to shorten the LCR was correlated with a development...
Source: Experimental Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

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Conclusion: This NMA will enable us to determine the order of effectiveness and safety of pharmacological interventions used in attenuating hemodynamic responses for mothers with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Trial registration number: CRD42019136067.
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Study Protocol Systematic Review Source Type: research
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 31209877 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Journal of Physiology - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research
Conclusions: Magnesium sulfate is an important adjuvant drug in the practice of anesthesia, with several clinical effects and a low incidence of adverse events when used at recommended doses. Introduction Magnesium is the fourth most common ion in the body, and it participates in several cellular processes, including protein synthesis, neuromuscular function and stability of nucleic acid, as well as regulating other electrolytes such as calcium and sodium. Magnesium acts as a cofactor in protein synthesis, neuromuscular function and stability and the function of nucleic acids. It is a component of adenosine 5-triph...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusions: In vivo exposure to remifentanil exerts a beneficial effect against excitotoxicity on the developing mouse brain, which is associated with a reduction in the size of ibotenate-induced brain lesion as well as prevention of some behavioral deficits in young mice. The long-term effect of neonatal exposure to remifentanil should be investigated. Introduction The potential neurotoxicity of anesthetics in the perinatal period prompted the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to release a drug safety communication warning in 2016 that stated, “repeated or lengthy use of general anesthetics or sedation ...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
In this study, we used HUT as the means to provide an all-encompassing assessment of cardiac and/or peripheral autonomic function in normal controls, SCD subjects and non-SCD subjects with chronic anemia. We hypothesized that by identifying different categories of HUT response among these subjects, we would be able to isolate the autonomic phenotypes that might place SCD subjects at increased risk for microvascular occlusion and VOC. We then employed the causal modeling approach, which utilizes signal analysis and system identification techniques, to probe and disentangle the functional mechanisms involved in the cardiovas...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Miguel del Campo1, Beatriz Piquer1, Jason Witherington2, Arun Sridhar2 and Hernan E. Lara1* 1Laboratory of Neurobiochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Centre for Neurochemical Studies in Neuroendocrine Diseases, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile 2Galvani Bioelectronics, Stevenage, United Kingdom Sympathetic innervation of the ovary in rodents occurs via two routes: the superior ovarian nerve (SON), which runs along the ovarian ligament, and the plexus nerve (PN), which is mainly associated with the vasculature. SON and ovarian norepinephrine (NE) levels play a major role in regulatin...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2019Source: Anaesthesia &Intensive Care MedicineAuthor(s): Carla Gould, Jon HopperAbstractMaintaining an equilibrium between oxygen supply and demand is a principal function of the cardiovascular system. In times of altered metabolic demand mechanisms exist to maintain the balance between supply and demand. Exercise, haemorrhage and pregnancy all lead to changes in oxygen demand and subsequently modification of cardiac output. During isotonic exercise, metabolic demands of muscle are greatly increased. Sympathetic stimulation and inhibition of the parasympathetic system lead ...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research
Recently, Chambers and Bhatia published a very good review of Horner ’s syndrome (HS) following obstetric neuraxial blockade.1 As explained by the authors, the main mechanism of HS in pregnant patients receiving epidural analgesia is the cephalic spread of local anesthetic leading to block of the sympathetic chain from C8 to T1. These thoracic levels correspond to a potentially dangerous situation in the case of complete sensory and motor anesthesia. Consequently, many anesthesiologists who are not fully familiar with this uncommon syndrome may be concerned about maintaining epidural block and might decide to stop or...
Source: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research
Recently, Chambers and Bhatia published a very good review of Horner ’s syndrome (HS) following obstetric neuraxial blockade.1 As explained by the authors, the main mechanism of HS in pregnant patients receiving epidural analgesia is the cephalic spread of local anesthetic leading to block of the sympathetic chain from C8 to T1. These thoracic levels correspond to a potentially dangerous situation in the case of complete sensory and motor anesthesia. Consequently, many anesthesiologists who are not fully familiar with this uncommon syndrome may be concerned about maintaining epidural block and might decide to stop or...
Source: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research
Authors: Elmorsy SA, Soliman GF, Rashed LA, Elgendy H Abstract Background: Autism is a challenging neurodevelopmental disorder. Previous clinical observations suggest altered sedation requirements for autistic children. Our study aimed to test this observation experimentally with an animal model and, to explore its possible mechanisms. Methods: Eight adult pregnant female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly selected into two groups. Four were injected with intraperitoneal sodium valproate on the gestational day 12 and four were injected with normal saline. On post-natal day 28 the newborn male rats were subjected...
Source: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Korean J Anesthesiol Source Type: research
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