Competitive Saprophytic Ability of the Hypovirulent Isolate QT5-19 of Botrytis cinerea and Its Importance in Biocontrol of Necrotrophic Fungal Pathogens
This study determined the competitive saprophytic ability (CSA) of the hypovirulent isolate QT5-19 of Botrytis cinerea on potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 20°C. Meanwhile, importance of the QT5-19 CSA in biocontrol against virulent isolates of B. cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (a close relative of B. cinerea), and the mechanisms for the QT5-19 CSA were elucidated. The results showed that QT5-19 had higher CSA than the virulent isolates 08168 (B. cinerea) and EP-1PNA367 (S. sclerotiorum) on potato dextrose agar. The hyphal fragments of QT5-19 exhibited an effective suppression against infection of leaves of oilseed rape by the hyphae of the two virulent fungal pathogens through competition. QT5-19 was detected to be able to produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with antifungal activity against B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum, whereas the VOCs from the virulent isolate RoseBc-3 of B. cinerea had no detectable antifungal activity. The QT5-19 VOCs effectively reduced disease severity of strawberry fruit rot caused by two virulent fungal pathogens. These results suggest that QT5-19 may achieve success of competition through extensive mycelial growth and production of antifungal volatiles. This study provided an example of using hypovirulent isolates to control virulent isolates of B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum.Graphical abstract
CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Rombauts A, Abelenda-Alonso G, Cuervo G, Gudiol C, Carratalà J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite adequate antibiotic coverage, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. It induces both a local pulmonary and a systemic inflammatory response, particularly significant in severe cases. The intensity of the dysregulated host response varies from patient to patient and has a negative impact on survival and other outcomes. AREAS COVERED: This comprehensive review summarizes the pathophysiological aspects of the inflammatory response in CAP, brie...
Authors: Hammerschlag MR, Sharma R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Azithromycin was recommended as the first-line therapeutic regimen for treatment of genital infections in men and women by the Centers for Disease Control in 1998. A series of studies of azithromycin for treatment of rectal chlamydial infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) found that azithromycin was significantly less effective than doxycycline. AREAS COVERED: Literature on treatment of rectal C. trachomatis from 2000 through May 2020 was searched using PubMed. Retrospective and observational studies were identified documenting the frequency and t...
Authors: Reissier S, Cattoir V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Streptogramins (pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin) can be interesting options for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive cocci, especially multidrug-resistant isolates. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an updated overview on structural and activity characteristics, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical use of streptogramins. EXPERT OPINION: The streptogramin antibiotics act by inhibition of the bacterial protein synthesis. They are composed of two chemically distinct compounds, namely typ...
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