Cellular and molecular characterization of multiplex autism in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons

ConclusionsWe have provided evidence of morphological, physiological, and transcriptomic signatures of polygenic liability to ASD from an analysis of cellular models derived from a multiplex autism family. ASD is commonly inherited on the basis of additive genetic liability. Therefore, identifying convergent cellular and molecular phenotypes resulting from polygenic and monogenic susceptibility may provide a critical bridge for determining which of the disparate effects of rare highly deleterious mutations might also apply to common autistic syndromes.
Source: Molecular Autism - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

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Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are multifaceted pathologic conditions manifested with intellectual disability, autistic features, psychiatric problems, motor dysfunction, and/or genetic/chromosomal abnormalities. They are associated with skewed neurogenesis and brain development, in part through dysfunction of the neural stem cells (NSCs) where abnormal transcriptional regulation on key genes play significant roles. Recent accumulated evidence highlights C2H2-type zinc finger proteins (C2H2-ZNFs), the largest transcription factor family in humans, as important targets for the pathologic processes associated with NDDs....
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
A UCLA-led study reveals a new role for a gene that ’s associated with autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability and language impairment.The gene, Foxp1, has previously been studied for its function in the neurons of the developing brain. But the new study reveals that it ’s also important in a group of brain stem cells — the precursors to mature neurons.“This discovery really broadens the scope of where we think Foxp1 is important,” said Bennett Novitch, a member of the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA and the senior author ...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
ConclusionMEK-ERK and MNK-eIF4E pathways regulate protein translation, and our results suggest that aberrant translation distinct in TSC1/2-deficient NPCs could play a role in neurodevelopmental defects. Our data showing upregulation of these signaling pathways by rapamycin support a strategy to combine a MEK or a MNK inhibitor with rapamycin that may be superior for TSC-associated CNS defects. Importantly, our generation of isogenic sets of NPCs from TSC patients provides a valuable platform for translatome and large-scale drug screening studies. Overall, our studies further support the notion that early developmental eve...
Source: Molecular Autism - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThis is the first report to show that humanNRXN1 α+/ − neurons derived from ASD patients ’ iPSCs present novel phenotypes of upregulated VGCCs and increased Ca2+ transients, which may facilitate the development of drug screening assays for the treatment of ASD.
Source: Molecular Autism - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
by Fanwei Zeng, Xuehai Ma, Lin Zhu, Qiang Xu, Yuzhe Zeng, Yue Gao, Guilin Li, Tiantian Guo, Haibin Zhang, Xiaoyan Tang, Ziqiang Wang, Zesen Ye, Liangkai Zheng, Hongfeng Zhang, Qiuyang Zheng, Kunping Li, Jinfang Lu, Xueting Qi, Hong Luo, Xian Zhang, Zhanxiang Wang, Yulin Zhou, Yi Yao, Rongqin Ke, Ying Zhou, Yan Liu, Hao Sun, Timothy Huang, Zhicheng Shao, Huaxi Xu, Xin Wang Ubiquitin-specific protease (USP) 6 is a hominoid deubiquitinating enzyme previously implicated in intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. Although these findings link USP6 to higher brain function, potential roles for USP6 in cognition hav...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: research
We report here the derivation of familial iPSC lines from two controls and three ASD patients carrying NRXN1α+/−, using a non-integrating Sendai viral kit. The genotype and karyotype of the resulting iPSCs were validated by whole genome SNP array. All iPSC lines expressed comparable levels of pluripotency markers and could be differentiated into three germ layers.
Source: Stem Cell Research - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
Using neurons grown from stem cells, EU-funded researchers are revealing more about mutations that lead to autism, schizophrenia and intellectual disability which researchers hope will lead to new drug targets for personalised medicine.
Source: EUROPA - Research Information Centre - Category: Research Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 9 September 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Alessandro Sessa, Luca Fagnocchi, Giuseppina Mastrototaro, Luca Massimino, Mattia Zaghi, Marzia Indrigo, Stefano Cattaneo, Davide Martini, Chiara Gabellini, Cecilia Pucci, Alessandra Fasciani, Romina Belli, Stefano Taverna, Massimiliano Andreazzoli, Alessio Zippo, Vania BroccoliSummaryMutations in one SETD5 allele are genetic causes of intellectual disability and autistic spectrum disorders. However, the mechanisms by which SETD5 regulates brain development and function remain largely elusive. Herein, we found that Setd5 haploinsufficiency impairs ...
Source: Neuron - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 28 June 2019Source: Stem Cell ResearchAuthor(s): Subhajit Giri, Meera Purushottam, Biju Viswanath, Ravi S. MuddashettyAbstractMutations in FMR1 gene is the cause of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) leading inherited cause of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. FMR1 gene encodes Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) which is a RNA binding protein and play important role in synaptic plasticity and translational regulation in neurons. We have generated a homozygous FMR1 knockout (FMR1-KO) hESC line using CRISPR/Cas9 based genome editing. It created a homozygous 280 nucleotid...
Source: Stem Cell Research - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
In conclusion, we further advanced the molecular understanding of mitochondrial dysfunction in RTT. Intensified mitochondrial O2 consumption, increased mitochondrial ROS generation and disturbed redox balance in mitochondria and cytosol may represent a causal chain, which provokes dysregulated proteins, oxidative tissue damage, and contributes to neuronal network dysfunction in RTT. Introduction Rett syndrome (RTT) is a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder. It primarily affects females, who show the first obvious symptoms within 6–18 months after birth. Among the characteristics are a regression of mental ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
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