Mystery Eye: Human Adenovirus and the Enigma of Epidemic Keratoconjunctivitis

Publication date: Available online 28 December 2019Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Rahul A. Jonas, Lawson Ung, Jaya Rajaiya, James ChodoshAbstractKnown to occur in widespread outbreaks, epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) is a severe ocular surface infection with a strong historical association with human adenovirus (HAdV). While the conjunctival manifestations can vary from mild follicular conjunctivitis to hyper-acute, exudative conjunctivitis with formation of conjunctival membranes, EKC is distinct as the only form of adenovirus conjunctivitis in which the cornea is also involved, likely due to specific corneal epithelial tropism of its causative viral agents. The initial development of a punctate or geographic epithelial keratitis may herald the later formation of stromal keratitis, and manifest as subepithelial infiltrates which often persist or recur for months to years after the acute infection has resolved. The chronic keratitis in EKC is associated with foreign body sensation, photophobia, glare, and reduced vision. However, over a century since the first clinical descriptions of EKC, and over 60 years since the first causative agent, human adenovirus type 8, was identified, our understanding of this disorder remains limited. This is underscored by a current lack of effective diagnostic tools and treatments. In part, stasis in our knowledge base has been encouraged by the continued acceptance, and indeed propagation of, inaccurate paradigms pe...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 21 February 2020Source: Stem Cell ResearchAuthor(s): Yalan Zhou, Chengcheng Ding, Shutao Xia, Yutong Jing, Shengru Mao, Jian Liu, Juan Chen, Hon fai Chan, Shibo Tang, Jiansu ChenAbstractCrumbs homologue 1 (CRB1) mutations have been found in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients lead to severe retinal dystrophies. The human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell line CSUASOi003-A derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of a patient carrying two heterozygous mutations (2249G>A p.G750D and c.2809G>A p.A937T) in CRB1 gene was generated by non-integrative reprogramming technolo...
Source: Stem Cell Research - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluate light-induced melatonin suppression under flickering and non-flickering light conditions. Fifteen male subjects between the ages of 20 and 23 years (mean ± SD, 21.9 ± 1.9) were exposed to three light conditions (dim, 100-Hz flickering and non-flickering light) from 1:00 a.m. to 2:30 a.m. Saliva samples were taken just before 1:00 and at 1:15, 1:30, 2:00, and 2:30 a.m. Repeated-measure t-test with Bonferroni correction showed a significant decrease in melatonin levels under both 100-Hz and non-flickering light conditions compared to dim light conditions af...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2020Source: Neuroscience &Biobehavioral ReviewsAuthor(s): Elisa Castaldi, Claudia Lunghi, Maria Concetta MorroneAbstractBetween 1-5:100 people worldwide have never experienced normotypic vision due to a condition called amblyopia, and about 1:4000 suffer from inherited retinal dystrophies that progressively lead to blindness. While a wide range of technologies and therapies are being developed to restore vision, a fundamental question still remains unanswered: would the adult visual brain retain a sufficient plastic potential to learn how to ‘see’ after a prolo...
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Given increasing rates of opioid addiction and death, viable solutions are universally needed. Successful intervention measures should be widely shared between military, veteran, and civilian healthcare and public health communities. Increased collaboration between these groups could inculcate successful programs to prevent and decrease opioid use. Results received from recent military and veterans' programs for prescription and electronic medical record (EMR) monitoring and data sharing may also prove useful for civilian healthcare providers and hospital systems. Future evaluations from ongoing federally fund...
Source: Military Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Mil Med Source Type: research
ConclusionsParticipants described how abusive partners may attempt to control or discredit their partners in pediatric healthcare settings, using subtle behaviors that may be easily missed by the healthcare team. These results set the stage for further research and clinical practice innovation including triangulating the findings with IPV survivors, examining how frequently these behaviors occur, and developing multidisciplinary IPV training for the pediatric healthcare team.
Source: Academic Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Significant barriers remain for objective and comprehensive evaluation(s) of post-acute program quality and purported patient outcomes in the United States. There remains a lack of consensually relevant and objective metrics. Further investigation is recommended for: consensus on longitudinal post-acute brain injury outcome measures; functional relevance of program accreditations/certifications; outcome differences based on team composition and program resources; and patient/stakeholder variables/input to support optimal post-acute service access and delivery. PMID: 32083600 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: NeuroRehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: NeuroRehabilitation Source Type: research
Authors: Merrigan SL, Park B, Ali Z, Jensen LD, Corson TW, Kennedy BN Abstract Aberrant ocular angiogenesis can underpin vision loss in leading causes of blindness, including neovascular age-related macular degeneration and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Current pharmacological interventions require repeated invasive administrations, may lack efficacy and are associated with poor patient compliance and tachyphylaxis. Vitamin D has de novo anti-angiogenic properties. Here, our aim was to validate the ocular anti-angiogenic activity of biologically active vitamin D, calcitriol, and selected vitamin D analogue, 2...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
The coronavirus outbreak has damaged the world ’s No. 2 economy, crippled global supply chains, and threatens to wreak even more havoc on business globally.
Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News - Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Source Type: news
Dr. Anthony Fauci, who is the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, explains what a pandemic is and says we're nearly at the brink of one with the novel coronavirus outbreak.
Source: CNN.com - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Abstract On June 22, 2017, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LAC DPH) was notified of seven patients who were seen at an eye care clinic on June 8, 2017, and later developed symptoms of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC). EKC is a contagious, severe form of viral conjunctivitis that can cause pain and blurred vision for up to 4 weeks (1). LAC DPH conducted an investigation, which identified 17 patients with EKC, including 15 who had visited the optometry clinic and two who were household contacts of clinic patients. Observations in the clinic found deficiencies in disinfection of tonometers (an ...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
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