What is an Opioid?

What is an Opioid? Opioids are a class of drugs that include the illegal drug heroin, synthetic opioids such as fentanyl, and pain relievers available legally by prescription, such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, codeine, morphine, and many others. All individuals who take opioids run the risk of addiction. As such, when asking “what is an opioid?” it is important to know the different types, the signs of addiction, and the signs of an overdose. Prescription Opioids Opioids interact with the opioid receptors on nerve cells in the body and brain. This interaction interferes with communication between the body’s nerves and the brain. For individuals suffering from chronic pain, whether from injury, surgery or other chronic pain condition, this can provide much-needed pain relief that over-the-counter medications are not strong enough to control. Along with interfering with pain receptors, opioids also provide a euphoric high to relax the user. This feeling can trigger the reward system in the brain. Eating delicious foods, being with someone you love, or seeing a beautiful view can also trigger the same reward system. As such, the body wants more and more until, eventually, dependency and addiction have taken over and withdrawal symptoms kick in. This is why opioids need to be slowly tapered off when they are prescribed so that uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms do not occur. Opioids by Name When asking “what is an opioid?”, it is important to know all t...
Source: Cliffside Malibu - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Detox Resources for Alcohol and Drugs/Opiates Heroin Painkiller fentanyl opioid opioid crisis opioids prescription drug addiction Source Type: blogs

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Authors: Mou D, Kleiman EM, Nock MK Abstract Despite decades of suicide research, our ability to predict suicide has not changed. Why is this the case? We outline the unique challenges facing suicide research. Borrowing successful strategies from other medical fields, we propose specific research directions that aim to translate scientific findings into meaningful clinical impact. PMID: 32228741 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The British Journal of Psychiatry for Mental Science - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Br J Psychiatry Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The early phases of anxiety and depressive disorders in adolescence are marked by emotional symptoms that usually emerge in the context of negative life events. To contend with the negative effect of such events, a typical reappraisal strategy is to distance oneself and switch the focus of one's thinking. This brain-imaging study in adolescent girls prone to the development of emotional disorders has found functional changes in key neural networks that are involved in reappraisal and shown that this process is impaired. This is important because it provides an early indication of these common disorders and a p...
Source: The British Journal of Psychiatry for Mental Science - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Br J Psychiatry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 1 April 2020Source: The Journal of Chemical ThermodynamicsAuthor(s): Shihua Dong, Weizhen Sun, Yueyang Jiang, Bing Jia
Source: The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
We described the clients' profile and the services offered at the clinic to identify gaps in service provision and areas of improvement. A retrospective record review of data was carried out from the ARC collected from February 2009 to December 2017. We analyzed 2343 affidavits that were available. Out of 2343 records analysed, (2190) 93.5% were female and 6.5 % (153) were male. The median age was 23years (Q1=21; Q3= 29) for males and 19 years (Q1= 17; Q2=25) for females. Among the clients, 2164 (92.4%) received a baseline HIV test, and 263 females and 6 males tested positive. From 2010 to 2017, six clients' seroconversion...
Source: African Journal of Reproductive Health - Category: African Health Tags: Afr J Reprod Health Source Type: research
This study explored the experiences of HIV-infected mothers regarding exclusive breast-feeding in the first six months following an infant's birth. Qualitative data was collected through in-depth unstructured interviews at a community health centre among mothers aged 18 years and above, who opted for exclusive breast-feeding. Thematic data analysis was undertaken. The study results revealed that mothers had positive experiences, such as motivation, satisfaction and being well informed. Some mothers had negative experiences, such as anxiety, family pressure and guilt, leading to non-adherence to exclusive breast-feeding. Th...
Source: African Journal of Reproductive Health - Category: African Health Tags: Afr J Reprod Health Source Type: research
Authors: Park SH, Lee MS, Kim SR, Kwak YG Abstract BACKGROUND: Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at risk of being exposed to or transmitting infections in hospitals, and vaccination against vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) is a well-known preventive strategy. Vaccination against influenza, hepatitis B virus, measles-mumps-rubella, varicella, and pertussis is recommended for HCP. However, there is no information on the current status of hospitals' vaccination policies for HCP in Korea. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide survey on hospital vaccination policies and barriers to implementing recommended vaccination ...
Source: Journal of Korean Medical Science - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: J Korean Med Sci Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 2 April 2020Source: Urology Case ReportsAuthor(s): Yoshihiro Kawaguchi
Source: Urology Case Reports - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
INTRODUCTION: The subjective effects of alcohol, i.e., alcohol expectancies (AE), are important predictors of alcohol use. This three-year longitudinal study examined: 1) the development of enhancement, social, coping, and conformity AE from age 10-16; 2) ...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news
This study sought to determine the prevalence and social determinants of depressive symptoms among university students in twelve countries. Particular focus was placed on th...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news
OBJECTIVES: Suicidal thoughts, for which college students are at risk, tend to be negatively associated with intentions to seek therapy, particularly among college-aged men. Emerging research suggests college students may seek psychological help online; ho...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news
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