Pupillary light reflex circuits in the macaque monkey: the preganglionic Edinger –Westphal nucleus

AbstractThe motor outflow for the pupillary light reflex originates in the preganglionic motoneuron subdivision of the Edinger –Westphal nucleus (EWpg), which also mediates lens accommodation. Despite their importance for vision, the morphology, ultrastructure and luminance-related inputs of these motoneurons have not been fully described in primates. In macaque monkeys, we labeled EWpg motoneurons from ciliary ganglion a nd orbital injections. Both approaches indicated preganglionic motoneurons occupy an EWpg organized as a unitary, ipsilateral cell column. When tracers were placed in the pretectal complex, labeled terminals targeted the ipsilateral EWpg and reached contralateral EWpg by crossing both above and belo w the cerebral aqueduct. They also terminated in the lateral visceral column, a ventrolateral periaqueductal gray region containing neurons projecting to the contralateral pretectum. Combining olivary pretectal and ciliary ganglion injections to determine whether a direct pupillary light reflex proj ection is present revealed a labeled motoneuron subpopulation that displayed close associations with labeled pretectal terminal boutons. Ultrastructurally, this subpopulation received synaptic contacts from labeled pretectal terminals that contained numerous clear spherical vesicles, suggesting exci tation, and scattered dense-core vesicles, suggesting peptidergic co-transmitters. A variety of axon terminal classes, some of which may serve the near response, syn...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

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Abstract The celiac ganglion projects its postganglionic (including purinergic) fibers to the liver. P2Y12 receptor is one of the P2Y family members. We found that the expression levels of P2Y12 receptor in both celiac ganglia and liver were increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats which also displayed an enhanced activity of celiac sympathetic nerve discharge (SND). In addition, a marked decrease of hepatic glucokinase (GK) expression was accompanied by reduced hepatic glycogen synthesis in T2DM rats, whereas meanwhile the levels of NLRP3, active caspase-1, NF-κB, and interleukin-1β were eleva...
Source: Biomedicine and pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine and pharmacotherapie - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Biomed Pharmacother Source Type: research
Abstract The melanopsin-expressing, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are a relatively recently discovered class of atypical ganglion cell photoreceptor. These ipRGCs are a morphologically and physiologically heterogeneous population that project widely throughout the brain and mediate a wide array of visual functions ranging from photoentrainment of our circadian rhythms, to driving the pupillary light reflex to improve visual function, to modulating our mood, alertness, learning, sleep/wakefulness, regulation of body temperature, and even our visual perception. The presence of melanops...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research
AbstractThe ligament of Marshall (LOM) is a remnant of the embryonic sinus venosus and left cardinal vein, and contains fat and fibrous tissues, blood vessels, muscle bundles, nerve fibers, and ganglia. The complexity of LOM's structure makes it as a source of triggers and drivers as well as substrates of re ‐entry for atrial arrhythmias, especially for atrial fibrillation (AF). LOM also serves as a portion of left atrial macro‐re‐entrant circuit, especially peri‐mitral isthmus re‐entrant circuit. Experimental studies demonstrate that the LOM acts as a sympathetic conduit between the left stel late ganglion and t...
Source: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology : PACE - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research
Ganglioneuromas (GNs) are extremely rare, slowly growing, benign tumors that can arise from Schwann cells, ganglion cells, and neuronal or fibrous tissues. Due to their origin from the sympathetic neural crest...
Source: World Journal of Surgical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Case report Source Type: research
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Source: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology : PACE - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research
This study investigates the effects of depth of propofol anesthesia on hemodynamic changes during PCTG. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 patients who underwent PTCG for trigeminal neuralgia were randomly assigned to control group-intravenous saline pretreatment before PCTG puncture and anesthesia targeted to bispectral index (BIS) 40 to 60 throughout, and study group-intravenous propofol 1 to 2 mg/kg pretreatment to deepen anesthesia to BIS
Source: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Clinical Investigations Source Type: research
ConclusionsDRG stimulation has been shown to significantly alter the symptomatology in patients with CRPS. This case suggests that DRG stimulation may be as effective for the treatment of refractory CRPS in pediatric patients as in adults.
Source: Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
In conclusion, an abundant population of nitrergic NS in the nodose ganglion implies that neuronal NO is involved in afferent cardiac innervation. Nevertheless, nNOS-IR neurons identified within vagal nuclei may play a role in the transmission of preganglionic parasympathetic nerve impulses. PMID: 32790077 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Anatomy - Category: Anatomy Authors: Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Conclusions: Vascular uptake incidence is low during ganglion impar blocks. This information can be one of the multiple factors considered when a physician is deciding whether or not to use contrast in an individual patient.
Source: Indian Journal of Radiology and Imaging - Category: Radiology Authors: Source Type: research
In modern societies, sleep deprivation is a serious health problem. This problem could be induced by a variety of reasons, including lifestyle habits or neurological disorders. Chronic sleep deprivation (CSD) ...
Source: Biological Research - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
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