A bigger fish for palaeontogists to fry…

A chance find in a quarry led to the discovery that Leedsichthys problematicus grew up to 50ft long – double previous estimatesAn international team of scientists has uncovered the remains of the world's largest fish. The 50ft Leedsichthys problematicus swam the oceans of the Jurassic era more than 160m years ago, sweeping up shoals of plankton through giant, mesh-covered gills. Leedsichthys was eventually wiped out by the same catastrophe that killed the dinosaurs 66m years ago.The discovery by the team – led by Professor Jeff Liston of the National Museums of Scotland – is intriguing because it reveals that just as dinosaurs on land were going through major changes which saw the appearance of animals of vast dimensions – creatures that included Diplodocus, Apatosaurus and Brachiosaurus – reptiles in the sea had also started to grow to vast proportions in the Jurassic."The process is known as gigantism," said Liston. "It was known about in land animals at the time but we had no way of knowing if a parallel process occurred in the oceans. We now know that it did – though the reason for appearance of these gigantic beasts, both on land and in the water, is not clear at present."Pieces of Leedsichthys fossils were first found by the British collector Alfred Leeds in 1889. Similar remains were subsequently found at other sites, from northern Germany to Normandy, Mexico and the Atacama desert in Chile. However, knowledge of ...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Evolution Dinosaurs Editorial The Observer Fossils Zoology Science Source Type: news

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ConclusionOctreotide SC depot provided higher exposure (AUC) than octreotide IM, maintained biochemical control in patients with acromegaly and symptom control in patients with functioning NETs, and was well tolerated with a safety profile consistent with octreotide IM.ClinicalTrials.gov identifierNCT02299089.
Source: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionsIn patients with newly diagnosed acromegaly, HT frequency was significantly increased and it was independently associated with the RRI value. Therefore, these patients should be closely monitored for HT —the most frequent and important cardiovascular risk factor—and treated before they develop target organ damage.
Source: High Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Prevention - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Authors: Boguszewski CL, Boguszewski MCDS Abstract Several components of the GH axis are involved in tumor progression and GH-induced intracellular signaling has been strongly associated with breast cancer susceptibility in genome-wide association studies. In the general population, high IGF-I levels and low IGFBP-3 levels within the normal range are associated with the development of common malignancies, and components of the GH-IGF signaling system exhibit correlations with clinical, histopathological and therapeutic parameters in cancer patients. Despite promising findings in preclinical studies, anti-cancer the...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research
Authors: García-Alvarez M, Climent V Abstract Acromegaly is a rare disease characterized by high levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin- like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). The excess of GH leads to the development of different manifestations in different organs, from subtle signs in the bones and soft tissues to the development of respiratory and cardiac insufficiency. In the cardiovascular system, the GH/IGF-1 axis exerts its influence on three major aspects: myocyte growth and structure, cardiac contractility and vascular function. In this article, we review the different cardiovascular and respiratory compl...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research
Xiaopeng Guo, Tian Meng, Jiuzuo Huang, Xiaojun Wang, Wei Lian, Kan Deng, Lu Gao, Zihao Wang, Bing Xing, Xiao Long
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Purpose of review Elevated circulating levels of growth hormone (GH) and/or increased expression of the GH receptor in the kidney are associated with the development of nephropathy in type1 diabetes and acromegaly. Conditions of GH excess are characterized by hyperfiltration, glomerular hypertrophy, glomerulosclerosis and albuminuria, whereas states of decreased GH secretion or action are protected against glomerulopathy. The direct role of GH's action on glomerular cells, particularly podocytes, has been the focus of recent studies. In this review, the emerging role of GH on the biological function of podocytes and its ...
Source: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: HORMONES, AUTACOIDS, NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND GROWTH FACTORS: Edited by Mark Cooper and Merlin Thomas Source Type: research
ConclusionsIn acromegaly,GSTP1 gene methylation associates with resistance to SSA treatment, especially in patients carrying also theAHR rs2066853 variant, and with increased prevalence of colonic polyps and diabetes mellitus.
Source: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe analysis of preclinical studies carried out in somatotroph and corticoph adenomas points out that pasireotide shows a cell-specific activity, exerting its biological effects via different SSTs in the different adenoma histotypes.
Source: Pituitary - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Paradoxical GH response reflected the clinical characteristics, especially IGF-I levels, glucose metabolism and drug efficacy in acromegaly. Paradoxical GH response, in addition to the nadir GH levels, to OG load can be potentially useful for evaluation of the clinical characteristics of acromegaly. PMID: 30476255 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: J Clin Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research
Abstract Individuals with acromegaloid physical appearance or tall stature may be referred to endocrinologists to exclude growth hormone (GH) excess. While some of these subjects could be healthy individuals with normal variants of growth or physical traits, others will have acromegaly or pituitary gigantism, which are, in general, straightforward diagnoses upon assessment of the GH/IGF-1 axis. However, some patients with physical features resembling acromegaly - usually affecting the face and extremities -, or gigantism - accelerated growth/tall stature - will have no abnormalities in the GH axis. This scenario i...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research
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