The effects of statins on microglial cells to protect against neurodegenerative disorders: A mechanistic review
AbstractMicroglia are the primary innate immune system cells in the central nervous system (CNS). They are crucial for the immunity, neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, neurotrophic support, phagocytosis of cellular debris, and maintaining the CNS integrity and homeostasis. Invasion by pathogens as well as in CNS injuries and damages results in activation of microglia known as microgliosis. The activated microglia have the capacity to release proinflammatory mediators leading to neuroinflammation. However, uncontrolled neuroinflammation can give rise to various neurological disorders (NDs), especially the neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD) and related disorders, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias, multiple sclerosis (MS), Huntington's disease (HD), spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and stroke. Statins (HMG ‐CoA reductase inhibitors) are among the most widely prescribed medications for the management of hypercholesterolemia worldwide. It can be used for primary prevention in healthy individuals who are at higher risk of cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases as well as the secondary prevention in patients with cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases disease. A growing body of evidence has indicated that statins have the potential to attenuate the proinflammatory mediators and subsequent NDs by controlling the microglial activation and consequent reduction in neuroinflammator...
ConclusionsPatients with CMS were more likely to present with increased comorbidities. Patients with CMS undergoing CABG were at risk for worse short ‐term secondary postoperative outcomes and reduced long‐term survival. The data supports the need for further investigation for risk reduction surrounding operative revascularization.
Balance and ambulation are the result of a multicomponent control process through the interaction of the sensory and motor information. Despite the clinical relevance of the somatosensory system, its role has not drawn much attention from clinical research...
AbstractThe strength of respiratory muscles is measured in terms of pressure, being the gradient that moves flow/volume to ventilate the lungs.Sniff test is a technically simple voluntary test that quantifies the strength of inspiratory muscles. Sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP)1 is a non ‐invasive parameter extensively used in the clinical, being considered more natural and pleasant than maximal inspiratory pressure measurements. It solves the possible leak problems of the use of a mouthpiece, particularly in neuromuscular patients2,3. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, for example, SNIP is a predictor of survival and tracheostomy4,5.
Condition: Coronary Artery Disease Interventions: Diagnostic Test: CT angiography; Diagnostic Test: Invasive coronary angiography Sponsors: Johns Hopkins University; Canon Medical Systems Recruiting
Condition: Stroke Interventions: Device: WBPC; Device: Without WBPC Sponsor: Changhua Christian Hospital Completed
Condition: Familial Hypercholesterolemia Intervention: Sponsor: Imperial College London Recruiting
Condition: Friedreich Ataxia Intervention: Drug: Etravirine Tablets Sponsors: IRCCS Eugenio Medea; University of Rome Tor Vergata Not yet recruiting
Condition: Stroke Interventions: Behavioral: Digital cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia; Behavioral: Sleep hygiene information Sponsors: University of Oxford; Big Health Recruiting
Do you struggle with anger? Did you know that some of our most hot-headed moments are actually rooted in anxiety? In today’s podcast, Jackie openly shares her own fuse-blowing moment when her husband’s keys were (gasp!) missing from the hook, and now she must face being late for therapy and perhaps even lie dying on the side of the road. How did she handle this catastrophic situation her mind so graciously forewarned her about? Does this sound familiar? Join us as we discuss anxiety-driven anger and explore ways to minimize and possibly even prevent it. (Transcript Available Below) SUBSCRIBE &REVIEW...
This study examined the effect on PRU in Japanese coronary heart disease patients with long-term DAPT (aspirin + clopidogrel) when switching from clopidogrel to prasugrel. Ninety-six patients were enrolled in this study. The median DAPT duration at enrollment was 1824.0 days. Twenty-three patients with PRU ≥ 208 at enrollment were randomly assigned into either continuing to receive clopidogrel (C ontinued Group;n = 11) or switching to prasugrel (Switched Group;n = 12). The primary endpoint was the rate of patients who achieved PRU