Burden of the typhoid fever and cholera: similarities and differences. Prevention strategies for international travelers to endemic/epidemic areas.

The burden of diarrheal diseases is very high, accounting for 1.7 to 5 billion cases per year worldwide. Typhoid Fever (TF) and Cholerare potentially life-threatening infectious diseases mainly transmitted through the consumption of food, drink or water that have been contaminated by the feces or urine of subjects excreting the pathogen. TF is mainly caused bySalmonella typhi whereas Cholera is caused by intestinal infection by the toxin-producing bacteriumVibrio cholerae.These diseases typically affect low- and middle-income countries where housing is overcrowded and water and sanitation are poor, or where conflicts or natural disasters have led to the collapse of the water, sanitation and healthcare systems. The mortality rate is higher in children under 5 years. Regarding their geographical distribution, TF has a high incidence in sub-Saharan Africa, India and south-east Asia, while cholera has a high incidence in a few African countries, particularly in the Horn of Africa and the Arabian peninsula.In the fight against these diseases, preventive measures are fundamental.With modern air travel, transmissible diseases can spread across continents and oceans in a few days, constituting a threat to global public health. Nowadays, people travel for different reasons such as tourism and business. Several surveys have shown that a high proportion of travellers lack adequate information on safety issues, such as timely vaccination and prophylactic medications. The main objective o...
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

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