Researchers urge prostate cancer screening for men with BRCA gene defects

Prostate cancer screening with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test has been criticized for flagging too many slow-growing tumors that might never be life-threatening. But some men have inherited gene defects that boost their risk of developing prostate cancers that can be quite aggressive. Is PSA screening particularly well-suited for these genetically defined groups? New research suggests the answer is yes. In November, a team of British scientists released highly anticipated findings from a study of PSA screening in men with defects in a pair of important genes called BRCA1 and BRCA2. Better known for increasing the odds of breast and ovarian cancer in women, BRCA gene defects are also risk factors for aggressive prostate cancer in men. Cells with defective BRCA genes have a compromised ability to repair the DNA damage they sustain routinely every day. As that damage accumulates, those cells become prone to forming tumors. What the investigators wanted to know was if PSA screens detect more prostate cancers in men who test positive for BRCA mutations than those who do not. To find out, they screened just over 2,900 men ages 45 to 69 who were split into four groups: a BRCA1 mutation-positive group, a BRCA2 mutation-positive group, and two groups that tested negative for mutations in either gene. The men were screened annually for four years, and had a prostate biopsy if their PSA levels ran higher than 3.0 nanograms per deciliter. What the results show In all 357 men we...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health Prostate Knowledge Screening HPK Source Type: blogs

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e;n Z Abstract Germinal or somatic mutations of the BRCA genes may serve as therapeutic targets. Deficient functioning of the BRCA genes render the cancer vulnerable to such therapeutic interventions as chemotherapy with DNA-targeted agents and PARP inhibitors targeting DNA repair capacity. Although BRCA mutations may be detected in a large variety of cancers, the mentioned specific therapies are efficient in the so called BRCA-associated cancers only including ovarian, breast, pancreatic, prostate cancers and the rare uterine sarcomas. While in ovarian and prostate carcinomas both germinal and somatic, in breast ...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors targeting DNA repair gene mutations have shown significant clinical benefit in patients with ovarian and breast cancers. In metastatic prostate cancers, the prevalence of DNA repair gene mutations is up to 20%, and early phase studies have shown clinical activity of PARP inhibitors. Numerous clinical trials with either PARP monotherapy or in combination with other therapeutic agents are ongoing in prostate cancer. In this comprehensive review, we provide the rationale, efficacy, and safety data of PARP inhibitors in prostate as well as urothelial cancers.
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
RARITAN, N.J., February 3, 2020 – The Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson &Johnson announced today multiple data presentations from a robust solid tumor portfolio that will be featured at the American Society of Clinical Oncology Genitourinary (ASCO GU) Cancers Symposium, taking place February 13-15 in San Francisco. Company-sponsored data presentations will include clinical results for ERLEADA® (apalutamide) and niraparib in prostate cancer; and BALVERSA™ (erdafitinib) in bladder cancer. “We are committed to improving outcomes in patients with prostate and bladder cancer where high unmet ...
Source: Johnson and Johnson - Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Innovation Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Kelly Olino, Tristen Park, Ntia AhujaAbstractAdvances in immunotherapy, most notably antibodies targeting the inhibitory immune receptors cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA-4/CD152), programmed death protein 1 (PD-1/CD279) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1/B7H1/CD274) have become effective standard therapies in advanced malignancies including melanoma,1–4 merkel cell carcinoma5, urological cancers6–8, non-small cell lung cancer9–11, mis-match repair (MMR) deficient tumors12, and Hodgkin lymphoma...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundPoly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) play a key role in DNA damage repair (DDR). DDR defects due to HRRm (eg BRCA mutation [BRCAm]) or resulting in HRD (eg global loss of heterozygosity) may sensitize tumors to PARP inhibitors, eg olaparib. Olaparib monotherapy has activity in BRCAm ovarian, breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer, and in prostate cancer with DDR defects beyond BRCAm (TOPARP). Olaparib improved efficacy outcomes vs placebo/chemotherapy as treatment in  ≤ 3rd-line (3L) HER2-negative BRCAm breast cancer (OlympiAD) and ≥2L BRCAm ovarian cancer (SOLO3), and maintenance the...
Source: Annals of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In conclusion, our data show how oncogenic and tumor-suppressive drivers of cellular senescence act to regulate surveillance processes that can be circumvented to enable SnCs to elude immune recognition but can be reversed by cell surface-targeted interventions to purge the SnCs that persist in vitro and in patients. Since eliminating SnCs can prevent tumor progression, delay the onset of degenerative diseases, and restore fitness; since NKG2D-Ls are not widely expressed in healthy human tissues and NKG2D-L shedding is an evasion mechanism also employed by tumor cells; and since increasing numbers of B cells express NKG2D ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In this study, we reviewed major human studies on the health risks of radiation exposure and showed that sex-related factors may potentially influence the long-term response to radiation exposure. Available data suggest that long-term radiosensitivity in women is higher than that in men who receive a comparable dose of radiation. The report on the biological effects of ionizing radiation (BEIR VII) published in 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences, United States emphasized that women may be at significantly greater risk of suffering and dying from radiation-induced cancer than men exposed to the same dose of radiation....
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Conclusion and Future Perspectives This review illustrates our current knowledge of USP7, including its source and characterization, structure, binding partners and substrates in various biological processes. Besides, how USP7 regulates various aspects of a cell under both normal and pathological states are elaborated in detail. As the processes of ubiquitination and deubiquitination are extremely dynamic and context-specific, a series of studies have linked USP7 to different cancers. The biology, particularly the immune oncology mechanisms, reveal that USP7 inhibitors would be useful drugs, thus it is vital to develop hi...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Survival from malignant mesothelioma, particularly pleural mesothelioma, is very poor. For patients with breast, ovarian, or prostate cancers, overall survival is associated with increased sensitivity to platinum chemotherapy due to loss-of-function mutations in DNA repair genes. The goal of this project was to evaluate, in patients with malignant mesothelioma, the...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research
Reena Goswami1, Gayatri Subramanian2, Liliya Silayeva1, Isabelle Newkirk1, Deborah Doctor1, Karan Chawla2, Saurabh Chattopadhyay2, Dhyan Chandra3, Nageswararao Chilukuri1 and Venkaiah Betapudi1,4* 1Neuroscience Branch, Research Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen, MD, United States 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, OH, United States 3Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, United States 4Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Clev...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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