A case of GFAP-astroglial autoimmunity presenting with reversible parkinsonism

Publication date: Available online 19 December 2019Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related DisordersAuthor(s): Anna Tomczak, Elaine Su, Madina Tugizova, Aaron M. Carlson, Lucas B. Kipp, Haojun Feng, May H. HanAbstractAutoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytopathy is a newly recognized autoimmune central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory disorder, presenting with an array of neurological symptoms in association with autoantibodies against GFAP, a hallmark protein expressed on astrocytes. Limited knowledge is available on the disease pathogenesis and clinical outcome. Here, we report a case of autoimmune GFAP astrocytopathy presenting with encephalomyelitis and parkinsonism. Our patient was a 66-year old male who experienced progressive somnolence, apathy, anxiety, right arm tremor, urinary retention, progressive weakness, and falls over the course of three months, followed by acute delusional psychosis. His neurologic exam on hospital admission was notable for cognitive impairment, myoclonus, rigidity, right hand action tremor, bradykinesia, shuffling gait, and dysmetria. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed elevated protein, lymphocytic pleocytosis, and one unique oligoclonal band. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed non-specific T2/FLAIR hyperintensities in the brain and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis in the cervical spine. FDG-PET showed a pattern of brain uptake suspicious for limbic encephalitis. Serum and CSF paraneoplastic panel sh...
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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This study aimed to assess the relative safety and short-term efficacy of drug-eluting bead transarterial chemoembolization (DEB-TACE) and conventional transarterial chemoembolization (c-TACE) for treating peculiar anatomical sites of gastric cancer liver metastasis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Of the 68 patients with gastric cancer liver metastases confirmed by imaging and pathology, 35 were treated with DEB-TACE and 33 with c-TACE. The DEB-TACE group comprised 26 males and 9 females aged 28-75 years (56.8±6.3), and the c-TACE group included 19 males and 14 females aged 33-77 (60.2±9.4) years. Liver functions of th...
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
Defects occurring in the femoral–fibular–ulnar developmental field are believed to cause the cluster of anomalies seen with femoral, fibular and ulnar limb deficiencies. Upper limb function must be considered in the management of lower limb deficiencies. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency and type of upper extremity anomalies found in children with femoral and/or fibular deficiency. A retrospective review of 327 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of femoral and/or fibular deficiency was performed using existing records and radiographs. Characteristics of those with and without upper ex...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics B - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Upper Limb Source Type: research
This study proposed a classification system and a possible mechanism for stress fractures of the first rib using three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT). The data of 10 stress fractures of the first rib in adolescent athletes obtained using 3D-CT between 2007 and 2018 were reviewed. Fractures of the first rib were classified according to the location and type of the fracture line. Stress fractures of the first rib were classified into three types: type 1, center-transverse fracture; type 2, center to posterior-oblique fracture; and type 3, posterior-transverse fracture. There were three type 1 fractures, five type 2 ...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics B - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Upper Limb Source Type: research
The Langenskiöld classification is the most commonly utilized classification system for the radiological features of Blount’s disease. Although there is only a single study found on the interobserver variability and none found on the intraobserver variability, it is commonly used for prognostication and guiding management decisions. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and reproducibility of the Langenskiöld classification. A retrospective review of radiographs was done of patients treated for infantile and juvenile Blount’s disease at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital from 20...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics B - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Leg & Foot Source Type: research
Estimating the appropriate tendon length and associated skin incision needed to achieve a plantigrade foot without compromising function are essential steps in open Achilles tendon lengthening. Here we describe a technique using basic surgical instruments referencing anatomic landmarks without the need for radiographs. The center of ankle rotation in the sagittal plane is found referencing the tip of the medial malleolus. This point is translated to the plantar surface of the foot, and a straight instrument in line with the foot is used to make a mark at the posterior calcaneal fat pad. The straight instrument is then rota...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics B - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Leg & Foot Source Type: research
Recent literature suggests that adults do not necessarily develop osteoarthritis if they have an osteochondral lesion of the talus (OLT). The purpose of this study was to determine if children with OLT are at risk to develop any radiographic evidence of early joint degeneration despite treatment efforts. Fifty-six ankles were identified over 6 years with stable OLT that underwent operative treatment. Preoperatively, each lesion was classified according to Berndt-Hardy for radiographs, Hepple for MRI, and Ferkel and Sgaglione for computed tomography. Radiographs were also evaluated for physeal status, OLT characteristics (l...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics B - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Leg & Foot Source Type: research
Conclusion: The prevalence of CAA in our study was like those of medical literature, with a pro gressive age-related increase.RESUMO Introdu ção: A angiopatia amiloide cerebral (AAC) é uma desordem vascular causada pela deposição progressiva de peptídeos β -amiloides nas paredes de pequenos e m édios vasos corticais e leptomeníngeos. Até a presente data, a epidemiologia da AAC é desconhecida em nossa região. Objetivos: Avaliar a prevalência da AAC em uma população específica de pacientes idosos de um hospital terci&...
Source: Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Neurologists and radiologists need to become familiar with the diagnosis of these conditions since their presentations are peculiar and often subtle, and can easily be misdiagnosed as ischemic events, degenerative disease, demyelinating disease or even tumors.RESUMO Degenera ções transaxonais resultam da morte neuronal ou da interrupção de conexões sinápticas entre estruturas neurais. Essas degenerações não são comuns, mas podem ser reconhecidas por imagens de ressonância magnética convencional. Objetivo: Os objetivos de aprendiz...
Source: Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 31 May 2020Source: Neurología (English Edition)Author(s): F. Castillo-Álvarez, P. Pérez-Matute, J.A. Oteo, M.E. Marzo-Sola
Source: Neurologia - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
In conclusion, the world of psychiatry is a possible hidden reservoir of HCV and, as such, a part of the challenge for eliminating the virus. Patients, families, and caregivers will have to be correctly sensitized and trained to play their role in the process. Specific investigations will be required to better understand why such an increased prevalence of HCV is observed in this population. Specific adaptations of the cascade of care within psychiatric settings, including access to treatment, will need to be designed, implemented, and evaluated for reaching micro-elimination of HCV in psychiatry. PMID: 32473777 [PubMe...
Source: L Encephale - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Encephale Source Type: research
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