Molecular imaging and advanced MRI findings following immunotherapy in patients with brain tumors.
Molecular imaging and advanced MRI findings following immunotherapy in patients with brain tumors. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2019 Dec 15;: Authors: Galldiks N, Lohmann P, Werner JM, Ceccon G, Fink GR, Langen KJ Abstract Introduction: Currently, immunotherapy using vaccination strategies or oncolytic virus approaches, cell-based immunotherapy, and the blockade of immune checkpoints are under evaluation in patients with brain cancer. Here we summarize clinically significant imaging findings such as treatment-related changes detected by advanced neuroimaging techniques following the most suitable immunotherapy options currently used in neuro-oncology. We, furthermore, provide an overview of how these advanced imaging techniques may help to overcome shortcomings of standard MRI in the assessment and follow-up of patients with brain cancer.Areas covered: The current literature on neuroimaging for immunotherapy in the field of brain tumors, with a focus on gliomas and brain metastases is summarized.Expert commentary: Data suggest that imaging parameters primarily derived from amino acid PET, diffusion- and perfusion-weighted MRI, or MR spectroscopy are particularly helpful for the evaluation of treatment response and provide valuable information for the differentiation of treatment-induced changes from actual brain tumor progression following various immunotherapy approaches. PMID: 31842635 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Glioma is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor with high mortality rate around the world. LncRNAs have been identified to play key roles in tumorigenesis in various cancers, including glioma. How...
Conclusions: Brain tumors especially germinoma are associated with the development of hypothalamic–pituitary antibodies and pituitary defects. The correct interpretation of APA/AHA antibodies is essential to avoid a misdiagnosis of an autoimmune infundibulo-neurohypophysitis or pituitary hypophysitis in patients with germinoma.
(Johns Hopkins Medicine) In experiments with human cells and mice, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center report evidence that combining the experimental cancer medication TAK228 (also called sapanisertib) with an existing anti-cancer drug called trametinib may be more effective than either drug alone in decreasing the growth of pediatric low-grade gliomas.
In conclusion, FOXO4 possesses an anti-cancer glioma activity, which could be a novel target for future control of GBM.
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: Journal of Neuroscience MethodsAuthor(s): Brittanie Partridge, John H. Rossmeisl, Alexandra M. Kaloss, Erwin Kristobal Gudenschwager Basso, Michelle H. TheusAbstractPrimary brain tumors are among the deadliest cancers that remain highly incurable. A need exists for new approaches to tumor therapy that can circumvent the blood brain barrier (BBB), target highly resistant tumors and cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) as well create an anti-cancer immunomodulatory environment. Successful treatments may also require a combinatory approach utilizing surgery, chemotherapy, ra...
We examined lncRNA profiles from three glioma specimens using lncRNA expression profiling microarrays. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to analyze the differential expression of raw intensities of lncRNA expression in glioma and peritumoral tissues. Results: We found 4858 lncRNAs to be differentially expressed between tumor tissue and peritumoral tissue. Of these, 2845 lncRNAs were up-regulated (fold change> 3.0) and 2013 were down-regulated (fold change 3.0) and 1804 that were down-regulated (fold change
We describe the limitations of their application in clinical practice and the new strategies aimed at enhancing their bioavailability and targeted delivery.
Conclusions: VEGFA and CXCL8 are important factors for angiogenesis, which are suggested to have significant roles during tumorigenesis. Our results provide further evidence that VEGFA and CXCL8 could induce angiogenesis and promote LGG to progress into GBM. These findings could be useful in developing novel targeted therapeutics approaches in the future.Resumo Os tumores cerebrais s ão uma das causas mais comuns de mortes relacionadas ao câncer em todo o mundo. A angiogênese tem caráter crítico em gliomas malignos de alto grau, como o glioblastoma multiforme. Objetivo: O objetivo deste est...
CONCLUSIONS: For brain cancer patients, HCMV-reactivation after the start of radiochemotherapy is a frequent risk for cognitively detrimental but treatable encephalopathy and premature death. Routinely performed HCMV-diagnostics, assessing basophil counts and study-based anti-viral regimens are necessary to combat this hidden threat. PMID: 32060103 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
(Jackson Laboratory) For cancers such as glioma, preclinical research models have failed to provide sufficient insight for medical progress. A team led by Jackson Laboratory's Roel Verhaak thoroughly analyzed sporadic canine gliomas and found that their molecular characteristics, including gene mutations and duplications, resemble those of humans. The results indicate that dogs provide an effective model for human gliomas, and learning how to more effectively treat our pets will likely inform better prognoses for human patients.