What Ancient 'Chewing Gum' Can Tell Us About Life 5,700 Years Ago

Scientists say that for the first time, they've managed to extract an entire ancient human genome from anything other than human bones or teeth. It told them a lot about the person chewing the gum.(Image credit: Theis Jensen/Nature Communications)
Source: NPR Health and Science - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Source Type: news

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Publication date: Available online 20 February 2020Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Christopher Ngosong, Thomas Buse, Martin Ewald, Andreas Richter, Karin Glaser, Ingo Schöning, Liliane RuessAbstractThe microbiota in three distinct terrestrial habitats (biological soil crusts – BSC, crust-adhering soil beneath BSC – trans, and crust-free soil close to BSC – soil) was studied in 33 temperate forest stands differing in management intensity (ForMI). Specific lipid fractions and respective marker fatty acids were used to determine microbial biomass and community structure (phospholipid fat...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 February 2020Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Xiangyin Ni, Shu Liao, Siyi Tan, Dingyi Wang, Yan Peng, Kai Yue, Fuzhong Wu, Yusheng YangAbstractRecent evidence suggests that a significant proportion of stable soil organic matter is derived from microbial necromass, which can be evaluated by measuring biomarker amino sugars. However, our understanding of the vertical distribution and control of amino sugars in soil profiles at the global scale is still limited. Here, we synthesized the concentrations of amino sugars relative to soil mass (mg/g soil) and to soil organic car...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 February 2020Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Guangshan Wei, Mingcong Li, Wencong Shi, Renmao Tian, Chunyan Chang, Zhuoran Wang, Ningxin Wang, Gengxing Zhao, Zheng GaoAbstractBacteria and archaea play important roles in soil biogeochemical cycles and the health of terrestrial organisms. They usually coexist in various soil habitats; however, the ecological patterns of bacteria and archaea in the same soil habitats still remain unclear. Here, we compared the community features of the two domains in bulk soils under different vegetation covers. Generally, both bacterial ab...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 February 2020Source: Redox BiologyAuthor(s): Shaun A. Mason, Adam J. Trewin, Lewan Parker, Glenn D. WadleyAbstractAntioxidant supplements are commonly consumed by endurance athletes to minimize exercise-induced oxidative stress, with the intention of enhancing recovery and improving performance. There are numerous commercially available nutritional supplements that are targeted to athletes and health enthusiasts that allegedly possess antioxidant properties. However, most of these compounds are poorly investigated with respect to their in vivo redox activity and efficacy in humans. The...
Source: Redox Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 February 2020Source: Plant ScienceAuthor(s): Liuqing Huo, Zijian Guo, Xin Jia, Xun Sun, Ping Wang, Xiaoqing Gong, Fengwang MaAbstractAutophagy is a conserved pathway to degrade and recycle damaged proteins and organelles, which has generally been reported to play an important role in plant adaption to various abiotic stressors. Here, we isolated a new apple autophagy-related gene, MdATG10, from Malus domestica. Expression of MdATG10 was induced by salt stress, particularly in roots. To investigate the effects of increased autophagic activity on salt tolerance of apple, we generated thr...
Source: Plant Science - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2020Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Yekoye Asmare TarikuAbstractAs a result of the complex and typical behavior of the earth's magnetic field, the high latitude ionospheric parameters (such as the Vertical Total Electron Content, VTEC) are very dynamic. Thus, this study mainly focuses on the pattern of variation of the VTEC inferred from the GPS, IRI 2016, IRI-Plas 2017 and NeQuick 2 with different height over Antarctica during 2011-2017. It has been shown that the GPS-derived (GPS VTEC) and modelled (IRI 2016, IRI-Plas 2017 and NeQuick 2) VTEC do not show si...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - Category: Biology Source Type: research
In this study, we employed a quantitative proteomics method to evaluate the impact of particle-radiation induced alterations in three major pUb-linked chains at lysine residues Lys-48 (K-48), Lys-63 (K-63) and Lys-11 (K-11), and probed for global proteomic changes in mouse and human neural cells that were irradiated with low doses of 250 MeV proton, 260 MeV/u silicon or 1 GeV/u iron ions. We found significant accumulation in K-48 linkage after 1 Gy protons and K-63 linkage after 0.5 Gy iron ions in human neural cells. Cells derived from different regions of the mouse brain (cortex, striatum and mesencephalon) showed differ...
Source: Life Sciences in Space Research - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: 15 April 2020Source: Life Sciences, Volume 247Author(s): Changzhe Chen, Chenxi Song, Dong Zhang, Dong Yin, Rui Zhang, Jingzhou Chen, Kefei Dou
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
This study determined the optimum gamma irradiation dosage to sterilize sodium hyaluronate (HY), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and CNT functionalized with HY (HY-SWCNT and HY-MWCNT), evaluated the structural integrity of the materials and assessed whether sterilized materials kept biological properties without affecting renal function.Main methodsMaterials were submitted to dosages of 100 gγ to 30 Kgγ and plated onto agar mediums for colony forming units (CFUs) counting. Sterilized samples were inoculated with 107 Bacillus clausii, submitted again to gamma irradia...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2020Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Yu-pu Liu, Shui-jin Shao, Hai-dong GuoAbstractDiabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus that affects approximately half of patients with diabetes. Current treatment regimens cannot treat DPN effectively. Schwann cells (SCs) are very sensitive to glucose concentration and insulin, and closely associated with the occurrence and development of type 1 diabetic mellitus (T1DM) and DPN. Apoptosis of SCs is induced by hyperglycemia and is involved in the pathogenesis of DPN. This review considers the patholo...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
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