Recombination of B- and T-cell epitope-rich loci from Aedes- and Culex-borne flaviviruses shapes Zika virus epidemiology

Publication date: Available online 16 December 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Michael W. Gaunt, Duane J. Gubler, John H.-O. Pettersson, Goro Kuno, Annelies Wilder-Smith, Xavier de Lamballerie, Ernest A. Gould, Andrew K. FalconarAbstractSporadic human Zika virus (ZIKV) infections have been recorded in Africa and Asia since the 1950s. Major epidemics occurred only after ZIKV emerged in the Pacific islands and spread to the Americas. Specific biological determinants of the explosive epidemic nature of ZIKV have not been identified. Phylogenetic studies revealed incongruence in ZIKV placement in relation to Aedes-borne dengue viruses (DENV) and Culex-borne flaviviruses. We hypothesized that this incongruence reflects interspecies recombination resulting in ZIKV evasion of cross-protective T-cell immunity. We investigated ZIKV phylogenetic incongruence In relation to: 1) DENV T-cell maps experimentally identified ex vivo, 2) published B-cell epitope loci, and 3) CD8+ epitopes predicted in silico for mosquito-borne flaviviruses. Our findings demonstrate that the ZIKV proteome is a hybrid of Aedes-borne DENV proteins interspersed amongst Culex-borne flavivirus proteins derived through independent interspecies recombination events. These analyses infer that DENV-associated proteins in the ZIKV hybrid proteome generated immunodominant human B-cell responses, whereas ZIKV recombinant derived Culex-borne flavivirus-associated proteins generated immunodominant CD8+ and/or CD4+ ...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 16 February 2020Source: MycoscienceAuthor(s): Naozumi Kondo, Hiromu Iwasaki, Toshiyuki Tokiwa, Satoshi Ōmura, Kenichi NonakaAbstractFive Simplicillium isolates were obtained from foam generated in an aquarium in Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Using a combination of micro-morphological characteristics and multigene (ITS, SSU, LSU, TEF) phylogenics, the isolates were identified as S. subtropicum and a new species which were previously undescribed. Simplicillium spumae, which is a new species, differs from known Simplicillium species in the morphology of their conidia and conidiophores.
Source: Mycoscience - Category: Biology Source Type: research
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Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Coronavirus outbreak China Japan Hong Kong Australia news Asia Pacific Infectious diseases Science World news Source Type: news
Diamond Princess evacuations begin as China announces death toll in country up to 1,665Hundreds of Americans have been flown out of Japan after leaving the quarantined Diamond Princess cruise ship on Sunday night, as a further 70 people onboard tested positive for Covid-19, bringing the total to 355.The removal of US citizens from the ship, moored at Yokohama, south of Tokyo, came as other countries said they would fly their citizens home just four days before the official quarantine set by Japanese health authorities was set to end.Continue reading...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Coronavirus outbreak Infectious diseases Japan US news Medical research Science World news Canada Source Type: news
The malformations of cortical development (most FCD) were the most common pathological type for children cases in China with drug ‐resistant seizures. It was speculated further that the FCD patients with shorter duration of epilepsy before surgery seem to have a higher ratio of being seizure‐free after surgery. AbstractObjectivesThe drug ‐resistant seizures are characterized by frequent and severe onset of seizures in childhood. There is only little literature had extensively explored the types of pathological brain damage in Chinese children cases. The present study aims to investigate the histopathologic findings a...
Source: Brain and Behavior - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
Outside of China, the Diamond Princess is the site of the biggest coronavirus outbreak.
Source: Health News: CBSNews.com - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Abstract Sporadic human Zika virus (ZIKV) infections have been recorded in Africa and Asia since the 1950s. Major epidemics occurred only after ZIKV emerged in the Pacific islands and spread to the Americas. Specific biological determinants of the explosive epidemic nature of ZIKV have not been identified. Phylogenetic studies revealed incongruence in ZIKV placement in relation to Aedes-borne dengue viruses (DENV) and Culex-borne flaviviruses. We hypothesized that this incongruence reflects interspecies recombination resulting in ZIKV evasion of cross-protective T-cell immunity. We investigated ZIKV phylogenetic i...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
In this study, we exposed apically well-differentiated human NECs cultured at the ALI to the related flaviviruses ZIKV, JEV, WNV, and Usutu virus (USUV). We selected these viruses due to the recent increasing evidences of potential threat to humans (Cadar et al., 2017; Simonin et al., 2018). We show that NECs are particularly susceptible to JEV and WNV infection and to other flaviviruses included in this study. Infection with each virus led to shedding of infectious virus particles through the apical and basolateral surfaces and triggered host mechanisms at the level of inflammatory and antiviral mediators. Given...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated ATA as a potential antiviral drug against ZIKV replication. The antiviral activity of ATA against ZIKV replication in vitro showed median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 13.87 ± 1.09 μM and 33.33 ± 1.13 μM in Vero and A549 cells, respectively; without showing any cytotoxic effect in both cell lines (median cytotoxic concentration (CC50)> 1,000 μM). Moreover, ATA protected both cell types from ZIKV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) and apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, pre-treatment of Vero cells with ATA for up to 72 h also resulted...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Introduction The impacts of rubella infection during pregnancy have been recognized since the pioneering work of Norman Gregg following introductions of this pathogen into communities in Australia during the Second World War1. Theoretical research into the characteristics of the population burden of pathogens with this unique manifestation followed2; and the teratogenic outcomes of rubella3 and their implications across diverse demographic, epidemiological and control settings4,5,6,7 are currently well described. In particular, in an endemic setting, incomplete vaccination coverage can lead to an increase in the teratogeni...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS ZIKV epidemic poses new challenges to public health, our knowledge about this virus is incipient. In Brazil, a relationship between ZIKV and microcephaly has been mentioned since November 20157 which has not been reported in ZIKV outbreaks in other areas of the world. Several research groups are working on this topic. Guillain Barré Syndrome also has been reported as a complication of ZIKV; however, there are still many questions unanswered regarding the complications caused by this virus. Provide information to the population, following recommendations and preventive measures, taking actions to reduce...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
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