Landscape of HIV Implementation Research Funded by the National Institutes of Health: A Mapping Review of Project Abstracts

AbstractIn 2019, the requisite biomedical and behavioral interventions to eliminate new HIV infections exist. “Ending the HIV Epidemic” now becomes primarily a challenge of will and implementation. This review maps the extent to which implementation research (IR) has been integrated into HIV research by reviewing the recent funding portfolio of the NIH. We searched NIH RePORTER for HIV and IR-related re search projects funded from January 2013 to March 2018. The 4629 unique studies identified were screened using machine learning and manual methods. 216 abstracts met the eligibility criteria of HIV and IR. Key study characteristics were then abstracted. NIH currently funds HIV studies that are eithe r formally IR (n = 109) or preparatory for IR (n = 107). Few (13%) projects mentioned a guiding implementation model, theory, or framework, and only 56% of all studies explicitly mentioned measuring an implementation outcome. Considering the study aims along an IR continuum, 18 (8%) studies examined barriers and facilitators, 43 (20%) developed implementation strategies, 46 (21%) piloted strategies, 73 (34%) tested a single strategy, and 35 (16%) compared strategies. A higher proportion of formal IR projects involved established interventions (e.g., integrated services) compared to new er interventions (e.g., pre-exposure prophylaxis). Prioritizing HIV-related IR in NIH and other federal funding opportunity announcements and expanded training...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

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“Everyone knows that pestilences have a way of recurring in the world,” observes Albert Camus in his novel The Plague. “Yet somehow we find it hard to believe in ones that crash down on our heads from a blue sky. There have been as many plagues as wars in history; yet plagues and wars always take people by surprise.” Camus was imagining a fictional outbreak of plague in 1948 in Oran, a port city in northwest Algeria. But at a time when the world is reeling from a very real microbial emergency sparked by the emergence of a novel coronavirus in Wuhan, central China, his observations are as pertinent a...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized 2019-nCoV health ideas Source Type: news
CONCLUSIONS: Understanding an intervention context, and how its features work together to amplify young women's risk in hyper-endemic settings can contribute to sustained momentum in reducing HIV incidence among young women and help to limit the reach of the HIV pandemic into new generations of Africans. PMID: 31328409 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research
In this study, we reconstruct the dynamics of dissemination of early divergent non-pandemic subtype B lineages (designated BCAR) in Hispaniola. To this end, we analyzed 127 HIV-1 subtype B pol sequences collected in Haiti between 2009 and 2014, combined with BCAR pol sequences from Haiti (n = 12) and the Dominican Republic (n = 123) previously described. Phylogenetic analyses supported that BCAR strains account for most (>70%) of HIV-1 subtype B infections in Haiti. The BCAR strains from Haiti and the Dominican Republic were highly intermixed among each other, although the null hypothesis of completely random mixing was...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions Apart West Nile virus (78), thousands of congenital microcephaly cases, fetal brain tissue damage and neurological syndromes have been associated with ZIKV infection. Unfortunately, the epidemics of this mosquito born, and a relative stable virus is on a rise. Although congenital microcephaly is a rare disorder however, due to lack of standardized diagnostic test facilities, the incidence in the geographically widespread ZIKV epidemic regions is higher. Animals studies showed that ZIKV is a neurotropic virus. It directly targets the developing embryonic brain cells by inducing apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
In this study, we included data previously published by our group from patients followed-up at HFI and all HIV-1 sequences obtained by NGS publicly available. A detailed description of the studied populations can be found in their respective articles (Pessoa et al., 2015, 2016; Alves et al., 2017). We focused on the HIV-1 subtype classification, identification of HIV recombinants and multiple infection investigation for our novel patients. As previous published, the patients from HFI were mostly males (75%) with a median age of 38 years at the time of sample collection. Regarding our new cohort, we also found a prevalence ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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Source: IntraHealth International - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Kenya Human Resources for Health (HRH) Kenya Program HRIS Human Resources Management Source Type: news
(CNN) — From climate change to superbugs, the World Health Organization has laid out 10 big threats to our global health in 2019. And unless these threats get addressed, millions of lives will be in jeopardy. Here’s a snapshot of 10 urgent health issues, according to the United Nations’ public health agency: Not vaccinating when you can One of the most controversial recent health topics in the US is now an international concern. “Vaccine hesitancy — the reluctance or refusal to vaccinate despite the availability of vaccines — threatens to reverse progress made in tackling vaccine-prevent...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health News CNN Local TV Source Type: news
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Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
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Source: Open Journal of Bioresources - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: HIV-related consequences at the individual, household, and community levels have adversely affected how Mfangano communities respond to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Community-based strategies are needed to address interrelated inequities at multiple levels. Changing community perception may overcome HIV stigma to enable individual readiness to seek care. Access to care and treatment enhances productivity and hence social capital in HIV-affected households. Addressing socioeconomic inequities at the community level increases access to social and instrumental support and, thus, may decrease risk and vulnerability for ...
Source: Progress in Community Health Partnerships - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Prog Community Health Partnersh Source Type: research
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