Vector competence studies with hard ticks and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes: a review

Publication date: Available online 14 December 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Eisen LarsAbstractUse of emerging technology allowing for identification of genetic material from pathogens and endosymbionts in ticks collected from humans, domestic animals, wildlife, or the environment has resulted in an avalanche of new data on tick-microorganism associations. This rapidly growing stream of new information is a tremendous resource but also presents challenges, including how detection of pathogen genetic material in ticks should best be interpreted. There is a tendency in the more recent published literature to incorrectly use the term “vector” based on detection of pathogen genetic material from tick species not experimentally confirmed to serve as vectors of the pathogen in question. To serve as a vector of a horizontally maintained pathogen, such as a Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) Lyme borreliosis spirochete, the tick species in question must be capable of acquiring the pathogen while feeding in the larval or nymphal stage on an infectious host, maintaining it transstadially through the molt, and then transmitting the pathogen to a naïve host while feeding in the subsequent nymphal or adult stage. This review examines the experimental evidence for and against species of hard (ixodid) ticks from different genera to serve as vectors of B. burgdorferi s.l. spirochetes. Of the 18 Ixodes species ticks evaluated to date, 13 were experim...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Related Links:

The prevalence of tickborne diseases worldwide is increasing virtually unchecked due to the lack of effective control strategies. The transmission dynamics of tickborne pathogens are influenced by the tick microbiome, tick co-infection with other pathogens, and environmental features. Understanding this complex system could lead to new strategies for pathogen control, but will require large-scale, high-resolution data. Here, we introduce Project Acari, a citizen science-based project to assay, at single-tick resolution, species, pathogen infection status, microbiome profile, and environmental conditions of tens of thousand...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Tom G. Schwan, Sandra J. Raffel, James M. BattistiAbstractThe relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii and the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto each produces an abundant, orthologous, outer membrane protein, Vtp and OspC, respectively, when transmitted by tick bite. Gene inactivation studies have shown that both proteins are essential for spirochete infectivity when transmitted by their respective tick vectors. Therefore, we transformed a vtp-minus mutant of B. hermsii with ospC from B. burgdorferi...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Dana Zubriková, Maria Wittmann, Václav Hönig, Pavel Švec, Bronislava Víchová, Sandra Essbauer, Gerhard Dobler, Libor Grubhoffer, Kurt PfisterAbstractLyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) are the most common tick-borne diseases in Germany. We collected Ixodes ricinus ticks from 16 high-risk and four low-risk sites distributed in Lower Bavaria and Upper Palatinate based on the number of human TBE cases recorded at the Robert Koch Institute from 2001 to 2009. A total of 8805 qu...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
This study also revealed the presence of the close ecological and evolutionary relationships between two important vector ticks, Hyalomma marginatum and Hy. aegyptium and determined genetic variations (distinct phylogenetic divergences inside the main clades) in some pathogenic SFG rickettsiae that are found in these ticks. Additionally, the presence of two Babesia species described very recently in hares with unknown vectors, namely Babesia sp. tavsan1 and Babesia sp. tavsan2, were detected for the first time in ticks. Finally, two unnamed Hepatozoon spp. were detected in Haemaphysalis ticks and their phylogenetic positio...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Vesta Matulaityte, Algimantas Paulauskas, Maksim Bratchikov, Jana RadzijevskajaAbstractIxodes lividus Koch, 1844 (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks are parasites specific to the sand martin (Riparia riparia). The distribution range of I. lividus covers Europe and Asia and they are found wherever sand martins nest. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii and Rickettsia vini have recently been detected in I. lividus ticks in Central Europe. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Rickettsia spp. (Rickettsiale...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
This study investigated Borrelia prevalence and species distribution in ticks removed from humans and sent as diagnostic material to the Institute for Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, in 2013-2017. A probe-based real-time PCRwas carried out and Borrelia-positive samples were subjected to species determination by reverse line blot (RLB), including a B. miyamotoi-specific probe. The overall Borrelia-infection rate as determined by real-time PCR was 20.02% (510/2547, 95% CI: 18.48-21.63%), with annual prevalences ranging from 17.17% (90/524, 95% CI: 14.04-20.68%) in 2014 to 24.12% (96/398, 95% CI: 19....
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 December 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Roman McKay, Benoit Talbot, Andreea Statculescu, Alexander Stone, Manisha A. KulkarniAbstractRecent studies have highlighted the occurrence and distribution of Ixodes scapularis ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) around the city of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, and the need for strategies to mitigate the risk of human exposure and infection. We conducted a field study from July to October 2018 to examine the effectiveness of ecotonal woodchip borders as an environmental control method to suppress the den...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Conclusions: In children, NB more frequently presented as meningitis, and in adults in the form of Bannwarth’s syndrome. CSF pleocytosis in children with NB was higher than in adults, while the protein concentration in children was lower. Outcomes in children and adults were favorable and did not differ after standard NB treatment.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research
SUMMARY: Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in Canada and the United States, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which affects multiple organ systems. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, and neuroimaging findings are reviewed.
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: research-article Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Hein Sprong, Sander Moonen, Sipke E. van Wieren, Tim R. HofmeesterAbstractCattle grazing has been suggested to reduce the risk for Lyme borreliosis by decreasing the density of questing Ixodes ricinus infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. We tested the hypotheses that cattle grazing used in woodland management decreases the density of questing I. ricinus, and that it decreases the nympal infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. We further expected the nympal infection prevalence of tick-borne pathogens that ...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
More News: Borrelia | Dermatology | Environmental Health | Genetics | Lyme Disease | Study | Tickborne Diseases | Zoology